Sunday, November 20, 2016

The parts of speech

The parts of speech
The eight parts of speech that form sentences and a description of each.
What is Grammar?
Grammar makes up all the words and structures in a sentence.
What are the parts of speech?

The parts of speech are nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections.
What is a noun?
A noun is used to name a person, place, thing, quality or idea. A few examples of each are Bill, Detroit, car, beauty and justice.
What are the two types of nouns?
The two types of nouns are proper nouns and common nouns.
What is a proper noun?
           A proper noun is used to name a specific person, place or thing. Such as Bill Gates, New York and the Hudson River. A proper noun is always capitalized.
What is a common noun?
       A common noun is used to name one or all members of a class or group. Such as a boat, woman, light and minutes. A common noun does not have to be capitalized. Common nouns can be concrete or abstract. Concrete nouns are used to name things people can use their senses to “see.” Abstract nouns are used to name intangible things such as qualities (sweetness) and ideas (freedom).
What is a pronoun?
        A pronoun is used in the place of a noun or phrase. There are many types of pronouns: personal, relative, interrogative, reflexive, intensive, demonstrative and indefinite.
Personal pronouns are used to refer to specific nouns. Such as: I, me, you, yours, they, he, it, and us.
Relative pronouns introduce dependent clauses. Such as: who, whom, that, which, what and whose.
Interrogative pronouns introduce a question. Such as: who, whose, whom, what and which.
          Reflexive and intensive pronouns deal with the self. Such as: myself, herself, yourselves and themselves. The difference between them is that reflexive nouns name the receiver of an action and intensive pronouns emphasize a noun.
           Demonstrative pronouns show which nouns perform or receive the action. Such as: this, these, that and those.
          Indefinite pronouns are used to show an unspecific number of nouns. Such as: all, few, many, none, other, something, anyone and neither.
What is a verb?
           A verb is used to show an action or a state of being. Such as: jump, run, cook and drive. There are three types of verbs.
What are the three types of verbs?
The three types of verbs are regular, irregular and linking. Regular verbs end in –ed or –d. Irregular verbs change forms, such as write changes to wrote. Linking verbs express a state of being, such as shows or appears.
What is an adjective?
           An adjective is used to describe or specify a noun or pronoun. Such as: green, big, that, this and her only.
What is an adverb?
             An adverb is used to modify a verb, adjective and other adverbs. They show when, where, why and how. Such as: never, often, above, there, then, not, almost and perhaps.
What is a preposition?
             A preposition is a word that is used with a noun or pronoun to form a phrase that shows where, when, how and why. They are commonly used to elaborate on the subject of a sentence. Such as: about, above, because, but, by, except, in, into, on, off, to, with, without and up.
What is a conjunction?
          A conjunction is used to connect words and phrases to show order and ideas. Such as: and, but, or, nor, for, so and yet.
What is an interjection?
              An interjection is used to show surprise or emotion. They are usually short phrases such as “oh no!” or “Good Lord!”

Inflectional and derivational morphology

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         Inflectional morphology is a part of the study of linguistics.
To apply an inflection is to change the form of a word so as to give it extra meaning. This extra meaning could be:
·                     Number
·                     Person
·                     Case
·                     Gender
·                     Tense
·                     Mood
·                     Aspect
·                     Politeness (as in the Japanese language)
Inflectional morphology manifests primarily in the form of a prefix, suffix, or vowel change. Circumfixes and infixes can also occur, but these are relatively rare.
An example of suffixes in inflectional morphology:
·                     "I have an apple" - apple singular
·                     "I have apples" - apples plural
           The word apples differs from apple only in the sense that the former indicates more than one fruit. This distinction is mandatory in English, optional in Korean, and impossible in Japanese. Yet other languages require the speaker to distinguish the number two of something, called the dual form of a noun. Forms for higher numbers, such a trial and paucal have also been recognized.
An example of vowel changes in inflectional morphology:
·                     "I throw the pencil" - throw present tense
·                     "I threw the pencil" - threw past tense
         Again, throw and threw are not different words. threw is the result of inflectional morphology being applied to the root word throw.
English is relatively poor in inflectional morphology. Other Indo-European languages have a richer system of inflection morphology. Latin is a typical example of a language with a very rich system of inflectional morphology.
Inflectional Morphology
Morphology that interacts with syntax (sentence structure) is called INFLECTIONAL MORPHOLOGY Some examples are:
·                     person
·                     number
·                     gender
·                     noun class
·                     case
·                     tense
Inflectional morphemes never change the category. Inflectional morphemes do not change the "core" meaning of the word. Inflectional morphemes usually occur "outside" derivational ones: "Boston-ian-s" not *"Boston-s-ian". But some left-headed compounds have the plural "inside": "attorney-s-general", "mother-s-in-law". But there is a tendancy to re-analyze these compounds: "attorney-general-s".

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