Sunday, November 20, 2016

Advanced Engl


Teaching is one of the easiest jobs in the world...
...Teaching WELL is one of the most difficult!

              In linguistics, a sentence is a grammatical unit of one or more words, bearing minimal syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it, often preceded and followed in speech by pauses, having one of a small number of characteristic intonation patterns, and typically expressing an independent statement, question, request, command, etc. Sentences are generally characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb, e.g. "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog".

Components of a sentence
                 A simple complete sentence consists of a subject and a predicate. The subject is typically a noun phrase, though other kinds of phrases (such as gerund phrases) work as well, and some languages allow subjects to be omitted. The predicate is a finite verb phrase: it's a finite verb together with zero or more objects, zero or more complements, and zero or more adverbials. See also copula for the consequences of this verb on the theory of sentence structure.
           A clause consists of a subject and a verb. There are two types of clauses: independent and subordinate (dependent). An independent clause consists of a subject verb and also demonstrates a complete thought: for example, "I am sad." A subordinate clause consists of a subject and a verb, but demonstrates an incomplete thought: for example, "Because I had to move."
By structure
One traditional scheme for classifying English sentences is by the number and types of finite clauses:
·                     A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause with no dependent clauses.
·                     A compound sentence consists of multiple independent clauses with no dependent clauses. These clauses are joined together using conjunctions, punctuation, or both.
·                     A complex sentence consists of one or more independent clauses with at least one dependent clause.
·                     A complex-compound sentence (or compound-complex sentence) consists of multiple independent clauses, at least one of which has at least one dependent clause.
By purpose
Sentences can also be classified based on their purpose:
·                     A declarative sentence or declaration, the most common type, commonly makes a statement: I am going home.
·                     A negative sentence or negation denies that a statement is true: I am not going home.
·                     An interrogative sentence or question is commonly used to request information — When are you going to work? — but sometimes not; see rhetorical question.
·                     An exclamatory sentence or exclamation is generally a more emphatic form of statement: What a wonderful day this is!
Major and minor sentences
           A major sentence is a regular sentence; it has a subject and a predicate. For example: I have a ball. In this sentence one can change the persons: We have a ball. However, a minor sentence is an irregular type of sentence. It does not contain a finite verb. For example, "Mary!" "Yes." "Coffee." etc. Other examples of minor sentences are headings (e.g. the heading of this entry), stereotyped expressions (Hello!), emotional expressions (Wow!), proverbs, etc. This can also include sentences which do not contain verbs (e.g. The more, the merrier.) in order to intensify the meaning around the nouns (normally found in poetry and catchphrases) by Judee N..[2]
                 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In grammar, a phrase is a group of words that functions as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence.
For example the house at the end of the street (example 1) is a phrase. It acts like a noun. It contains the phrase at the end of the street (example 2), a prepositional phrase which acts like an adjective. Example 2 could be replaced by white, to make the phrase the white house. Examples 1 and 2 contain the phrase the end of the street (example 3) which acts like a noun. It could be replaced by the cross-roads to give the house at the cross-roads.
Most phrases have a or central word which defines the type of phrase. This word is called the head of the phrase. In English the head is often the first word of the phrase. Some phrases, however, can be headless. For example, the rich is a noun phrase composed of a determiner and an adjective, but no noun.
Phrases may be classified by the type of head they take
·                     Prepositional phrase (PP) with a preposition as head (e.g. in love, over the rainbow). Languages that use postpositions instead have postpositional phrases. The two types are sometimes commonly referred to as adpositional phrases.
·                     Noun phrase (NP) with a noun as head (e.g. the black cat, a cat on the mat)
·                     Verb phrase (VP) with a verb as head (e.g. eat cheese, jump up and down)
·                     Adjectival phrase with an adjective as head (e.g. full of toys)
·                     Adverbial phrase with adverb as head (e.g. very carefully)
Formal definition
           A phrase is a syntactic structure which has syntactic properties derived from its head.
            A complex phrase consists of several words, whereas a simple phrase consists of only one word. This terminology is especially often used with verb phrases:
·                     simple past and present are simple verb, which require just one verb
·                     complex verb have one or two aspects added, hence require additional two or three words
"Complex", which is phrase-level, is often confused with "compound", which is word-level. However, there are certain phenomena that formally seem to be phrases but semantically are more like compounds, like "women's magazines", which has the form of a possessive noun phrase, but which refers (just like a compound) to one specific lexeme (i.e. a magazine for women and not some magazine owned by a woman).
Simple sentences . . .
contain only one independent clause. Example:
Mrs. Bergey enjoys teaching writing.

What are Compound Sentences?
They join two or more independent clauses (simple sentences). Compound sentences join ideas of equal importance.
Mrs. Bergey enjoys teaching writing.
Mrs. Bergey wants her students to succeed.
Mrs. Bergey enjoys teaching writing, and she wants her students to succeed.
A compound sentence contains two sentences joined by and, or, or but. These words are called conjunctions. Compound sentences express more than one complete thought.
What are Complex Sentences?
             Complex sentences join one or more dependent clauses to the independent clause. Complex sentences are useful when your writing includes some ideas that are more important than others.
Mrs. Bergey, a teacher at Twentynine Palms Elementary School, enjoys teaching writing.
                A complex sentence contains a clause (a statement) that is not a complete sentence. This is in addition to the complete sentence. "a teacher at Twentynine Palms Elementary School" is not a complete sentence and would not stand on its own. (That is why it is sometimes called a "dependent" clause. It depends on the rest of the sentence.) 
HINT for succesful writers:
Use a variety of sentences styles in your writing!
The Structure of a Sentence
                  Remember that every clause is, in a sense, a miniature sentence. A simple sentences contains only a single clause, while a compound sentence, a complex sentence, or a compound-complex sentence contains at least two clauses.

The Simple Sentence

The most basic type of sentence is the simple sentence, which contains only one clause. A simple sentence can be as short as one word:
Usually, however, the sentence has a subject as well as a predicate and both the subject and the predicate may have modifiers. All of the following are simple sentences, because each contains only one clause:
Ice melts.
The ice melts quickly.
The ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun.
Lying exposed without its blanket of snow, the ice on the river melts quickly under the warm March sun.
        As you can see, a simple sentence can be quite long -- it is a mistake to think that you can tell a simple sentence from a compound sentence or a complex sentence simply by its length.
           The most natural sentence structure is the simple sentence: it is the first kind which children learn to speak, and it remains by far the most common sentence in the spoken language of people of all ages. In written work, simple sentences can be very effective for grabbing a reader's attention or for summing up an argument, but you have to use them with care: too many simple sentences can make your writing seem childish.
                When you do use simple sentences, you should add transitional phrases to connect them to the surrounding sentences.
A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses (or simple sentences) joined by co-ordinating conjunctions like "and," "but," and "or":
Canada is a rich country.
Still, it has many poor people.
Canada is a rich country, but still it has many poor people.
Compound sentences are very natural for English speakers -- small children learn to use them early on to connect their ideas and to avoid pausing (and allowing an adult to interrupt):
Today at school Mr. Moore brought in his pet rabbit, and he showed it to the class, and I got to pet it, and Kate held it, and we coloured pictures of it, and it ate part of my carrot at lunch, and ...
Of course, this is an extreme example, but if you over-use compound sentences in written work, your writing might seem immature.
A compound sentence is most effective when you use it to create a sense of balance or contrast between two (or more) equally-important pieces of information:
Montéal has better clubs, but Toronto has better cinemas.
             There are two special types of compound sentences which you might want to note. First, rather than joining two simple sentences together, a co-ordinating conjunction sometimes joins two complex sentences, or one simple sentence and one complex sentence. In this case, the sentence is called a compound-complex sentence:
The package arrived in the morning, but the courier left before I could check the contents.
The second special case involves punctuation. It is possible to join two originally separate sentences into a compound sentence using a semicolon instead of a co-ordinating conjunction:
Sir John A. Macdonald had a serious drinking problem; when sober, however, he could be a formidable foe in the House of Commons.
Usually, a conjunctive adverb like "however" or "consequently" will appear near the beginning of the second part, but it is not required:
The sun rises in the east; it sets in the west.
      A complex sentence contains one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. Unlike a compound sentence, however, a complex sentence contains clauses which are not equal. Consider the following examples:
My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.
My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.
Although my friend invited me to a party, I do not want to go.
In the first example, there are two separate simple sentences: "My friend invited me to a party" and "I do not want to go." The second example joins them together into a single sentence with the co-ordinating conjunction "but," but both parts could still stand as independent sentences -- they are entirely equal, and the reader cannot tell which is most important. In the third example, however, the sentence has changed quite a bit: the first clause, "Although my friend invited me to a party," has become incomplete, or a dependent clause.
A complex sentence is very different from a simple sentence or a compound sentence because it makes clear which ideas are most important. When you write
My friend invited me to a party. I do not want to go.
or even
My friend invited me to a party, but I do not want to go.
         The reader will have trouble knowing which piece of information is most important to you. When you write the subordinating conjunction "although" at the beginning of the first clause, however, you make it clear that the fact that your friend invited you is less important than, or subordinate, to the fact that you do not want to go.
           Another important and perhaps universal distinction is the one between derivational and inflectional morphemes.
Derivational morphemes makes new words from old ones (Crystal, p. 90.) Thus creation is formed from create , but they are two separate words.
Derivational morphemes generally:
1) Change the part of speech or the basic meaning of a word. Thus -ment added to a verb forms a noun (judg-ment). re-activate means "activate again."
2) Are not required by syntactic relations outside the word. Thus un-kind combines un- and kind into a single new word, but has no particular syntactic connections outside the word -- we can say he is unkind or he is kind or they are unkind or they are kind, depending on what we mean.
3) Are often not productive -- derivational morphemes can be selective about what they'll combine with, and may also have erratic effects on meaning. Thus the suffix -hood occurs with just a few nouns such as brother, neighbor, and knight, but not with most others. e.g., *friendhood, *daughterhood, or *candlehood. Furthermore "brotherhood" can mean "the state or relationship of being brothers," but "neighborhood" cannot mean "the state or relationship of being neighbors."
4) Typically occur between the stem and any inflectional affixes. Thus in governments,-ment, a derivational suffix, precedes -s, an inflectional suffix.
5) In English, may appear either as prefixes or suffixes: pre-arrange, arrange-ment.
             Inflectional morphemes: vary (or "inflect") the form of words in order to express grammatical features, such as singular/plural or past/present tense. Thus Boy and boys, for example, are two different forms of the "same" word; the choice between them, singular vs. plural, is a matter of grammar and thus the business of inflectional morphology. (Crystal, p. 90.)
Inflectional Morphemes generally:
1) Do not change basic meaning or part of speech, e.g., big, bigg-er, bigg-est are all adjectives.
2) Express grammatically-required features or indicate relations between different words in the sentence. Thus in Lee love-s Kim: -s marks the 3rd person singular present form of the verb, and also relates it to the 3rd singular subject Lee.
3) Are productive. Inflectional morphemes typically combine freely with all members of some large class of morphemes, with predictable effects on usage/meaning. Thus the plural morpheme can be combined with nearly any noun, usually in the same form, and usually with the same effect on meaning.
4) Occur outside any derivational morphemes. Thus in ration-al-iz-ation-s the final -s is inflectional, and appears at the very end of the word, outside the derivational morphemes -al, -iz, -ation.
5) In English, are suffixes only.

Some English morphemes, by category:

-s Plural 
-s Possessive 
-ed Past 
-ing Progressive 
-er Comparative 
-est Superlative

The parts of speech
The eight parts of speech that form sentences and a description of each.
What is Grammar?
Grammar makes up all the words and structures in a sentence.
What are the parts of speech?

The parts of speech are nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections.
What is a noun?
A noun is used to name a person, place, thing, quality or idea. A few examples of each are Bill, Detroit, car, beauty and justice.
What are the two types of nouns?
The two types of nouns are proper nouns and common nouns.
What is a proper noun?
           A proper noun is used to name a specific person, place or thing. Such as Bill Gates, New York and the Hudson River. A proper noun is always capitalized.
What is a common noun?
       A common noun is used to name one or all members of a class or group. Such as a boat, woman, light and minutes. A common noun does not have to be capitalized. Common nouns can be concrete or abstract. Concrete nouns are used to name things people can use their senses to “see.” Abstract nouns are used to name intangible things such as qualities (sweetness) and ideas (freedom).
What is a pronoun?
        A pronoun is used in the place of a noun or phrase. There are many types of pronouns: personal, relative, interrogative, reflexive, intensive, demonstrative and indefinite.
Personal pronouns are used to refer to specific nouns. Such as: I, me, you, yours, they, he, it, and us.
Relative pronouns introduce dependent clauses. Such as: who, whom, that, which, what and whose.
Interrogative pronouns introduce a question. Such as: who, whose, whom, what and which.
          Reflexive and intensive pronouns deal with the self. Such as: myself, herself, yourselves and themselves. The difference between them is that reflexive nouns name the receiver of an action and intensive pronouns emphasize a noun.
           Demonstrative pronouns show which nouns perform or receive the action. Such as: this, these, that and those.
          Indefinite pronouns are used to show an unspecific number of nouns. Such as: all, few, many, none, other, something, anyone and neither.
What is a verb?
           A verb is used to show an action or a state of being. Such as: jump, run, cook and drive. There are three types of verbs.
What are the three types of verbs?
The three types of verbs are regular, irregular and linking. Regular verbs end in –ed or –d. Irregular verbs change forms, such as write changes to wrote. Linking verbs express a state of being, such as shows or appears.
What is an adjective?
           An adjective is used to describe or specify a noun or pronoun. Such as: green, big, that, this and her only.
What is an adverb?
             An adverb is used to modify a verb, adjective and other adverbs. They show when, where, why and how. Such as: never, often, above, there, then, not, almost and perhaps.
What is a preposition?
             A preposition is a word that is used with a noun or pronoun to form a phrase that shows where, when, how and why. They are commonly used to elaborate on the subject of a sentence. Such as: about, above, because, but, by, except, in, into, on, off, to, with, without and up.
What is a conjunction?
          A conjunction is used to connect words and phrases to show order and ideas. Such as: and, but, or, nor, for, so and yet.
What is an interjection?
              An interjection is used to show surprise or emotion. They are usually short phrases such as “oh no!” or “Good Lord!”

Inflectional and derivational morphology

Teaching is one of the easiest jobs in the world...
...Teaching WELL is one of the most difficult!

         Inflectional morphology is a part of the study of linguistics.
To apply an inflection is to change the form of a word so as to give it extra meaning. This extra meaning could be:
·                     Number
·                     Person
·                     Case
·                     Gender
·                     Tense
·                     Mood
·                     Aspect
·                     Politeness (as in the Japanese language)
Inflectional morphology manifests primarily in the form of a prefix, suffix, or vowel change. Circumfixes and infixes can also occur, but these are relatively rare.
An example of suffixes in inflectional morphology:
·                     "I have an apple" - apple singular
·                     "I have apples" - apples plural
           The word apples differs from apple only in the sense that the former indicates more than one fruit. This distinction is mandatory in English, optional in Korean, and impossible in Japanese. Yet other languages require the speaker to distinguish the number two of something, called the dual form of a noun. Forms for higher numbers, such a trial and paucal have also been recognized.
An example of vowel changes in inflectional morphology:
·                     "I throw the pencil" - throw present tense
·                     "I threw the pencil" - threw past tense
         Again, throw and threw are not different words. threw is the result of inflectional morphology being applied to the root word throw.
English is relatively poor in inflectional morphology. Other Indo-European languages have a richer system of inflection morphology. Latin is a typical example of a language with a very rich system of inflectional morphology.
Inflectional Morphology
Morphology that interacts with syntax (sentence structure) is called INFLECTIONAL MORPHOLOGY Some examples are:
·                     person
·                     number
·                     gender
·                     noun class
·                     case
·                     tense
Inflectional morphemes never change the category. Inflectional morphemes do not change the "core" meaning of the word. Inflectional morphemes usually occur "outside" derivational ones: "Boston-ian-s" not *"Boston-s-ian". But some left-headed compounds have the plural "inside": "attorney-s-general", "mother-s-in-law". But there is a tendancy to re-analyze these compounds: "attorney-general-s".

  English inflectional morphology
              English has only three categories of meaning which are expressed inflectionally, known as inflectional categories. They are number in nouns, tense/aspect in verbs, and comparison in adjectives.  Within these categories, English has a remarkably small inventory of affixes, by comparison with languages such as Spanish or Russian. English does not always use affixes to express these categories (see the discussion of irregular morphology).
Inflectional categories and affixes of English
Word class to which inflection applies
Inflectional category
Regular affix used to express category
-s, -es:
 book/books, bush/bushes
-'s, -': 
 the cat's tail, Charles' toe
3rd person singular present
-s, -es: it rains, Karen writes, the water sloshes
past tense
-ed:       paint/painted
perfect aspect
-ed:    paint/painted ('has painted) (past participle)
progressive or continuous aspect
-ing: fall/falling, write/writing (present participle)
comparative (comparing two items)
-er:      tall/taller
superlative (comparing +2 items)
-est:     tall/tallest
           Spanish, by contrast, inflects its nouns for number and gender, but not for possession (which is signalled by placing the particle 'de' between the possessed item and the possessor, as in 'la casa de mi madre', 'the house of my mother'. Spanish has far more inflectional categories — and affixes to mark them — for verbs than does English.
Spanish inflectional categories and affixes
Word class to which inflection applies
Inflectional category
Regular affix used to express category
'-s'   mano/manos 'hand/hands'
'-a' Fem., '-o' Masc. 
hermana/hermano 'sister/brother'
 The following table shows the verb suffixes for just one of the three classes of Spanish verbs:
-ar class 
pres. subjunctive 
imperf. subj.
you (sg.)
you (pl.)
   Regular and irregular inflectional morphology
Here are some ways English inflectional morphology is irregular:
Type of irregularity
Noun plurals
Verbs: past tense
Verbs: past participle
Unusual suffix
oxen, syllabi, antennae
taken, seen, fallen, eaten
Change of stem vowel
foot/feet, mouse/mice
run/ran, come/came, flee/fled, meet/met, fly/flew, stick/stuck, get/got, break/broke
swim/swum, sing/sung
Change of stem vowel with unusual suffix
feel/felt, kneel/knelt
write/written, do/done, break/broken, fly/flown
Change in base/stem form 
(sometimes with unusual suffix)
send/sent, bend/bent, think/thought, teach/taught, buy/bought
send/sent, bend/bent, think/thought, teach/taught, buy/bought
Zero-marking (no suffix, no stem change)
deer, sheep, moose, fish
hit, beat
hit, beat, come
More ways inflection can be irregular:
Suppletion (instead of a suffix, the whole word changes):
be - am - are - is - was - were - been
go - went - gone
good - better - best
bad - worse - worst
some - more - most
Syntactic marking (added meanings are indicated by a separate word rather than marking with a suffix or change to the base):
Future of verbs: will go, will eat, will fight, etc.
Comparative/superlative of adjectives: more intelligent, more expensive, etc.; most intelligent, most expensive, etc.
  English derivational morphology
    Below is a sample of some English derivational affixes. This is only a sample; there are far more affixes than presented here.
Some derivational affixes of English
Class(es) of word to which affix applies
Nature of change in meaning
Prefix 'non-'
Noun, adjective
Noun: non-starter  
Adj.: non-partisan
Suffix '-ity'
Changes to noun
Prefix 'un-'
Reverses action  
opposite quality
tie/untie, fasten/unfasten  
clear/unclear, safe/unsafe
Suffix '-ous'
Changes to adjective
fame/famous, glamor/glamorous
Prefix 're-'
Repeat action
tie/retie, write/rewrite
Suffix '-able'
Changes to adjective;  
means 'can undergo action of verb'
print/printable, drink/drinkable
Error analysis in language teaching

Teaching is one of the easiest jobs in the world...
...Teaching WELL is one of the most difficult!

        In language teaching, error analysis studies the types and causes of language errors. Errors are classified[3]according to:
·                     modality (i.e. level of proficiency in speaking, writing, reading, listening)
·                     linguistic levels (i.e. pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, style)
·                     form (e.g. omission, insertion, substitution)
·                     type (systematic errors/errors in competence vs. occasional errors/errors in performance)
·                     cause (e.g. interference, interlanguage)
·                     norm vs. system

Speech error
         A speech error is a speech pattern that differs from some standard pattern. Speech errors are common among children, who have yet to refine their speech, and can frequently continue into adulthood. They sometimes lead to embarrassment and betrayal of the speaker's regional or ethnic origins. However, it is also common for them to enter the popular culture as a kind of linguistic "flavoring".
           Speech errors may be used intentionally for humorous effect, as with Spoonerisms.
           Within the field of psycholinguistics, speech errors fall under the category of language production. Types of speech errors include: exchange errors, perseveration, anticipation, shift, substitution, blends, additions, and deletions. The study of speech errors contributes to the  stablishment/refinement of models of speech production.
Types of speech errors
·                     Grammatical - For example children take time to learn irregular verbs, so in English use the -ed form incorrectly. See Words and Rules.
·                     Mispronunciation
·                     Vocabulary Young children make category approximations, using car for lorry for example. See hypernym.


·                     "Antartica" (Antarctica) <- elision
·                     "particuly" (particularly) <- elision
·                     "syntaxically" (syntactically) <- vocabulary
Language has a very specific structure, rules and vocabulary. When we see movies or read books, the characters seem to speak perfectly. Time the words just right, no hesitations, no repetitions of words, appropriate intonation, right speed, pitch and volume. But ideal delivery is purely hypothetical. We strive for it but it’s impossible because we’re always at maximum capacity while speaking and errors are inevitable.
Speech production
             The production of spoken language involves three major levels of processing. According to current models of the production lexicon, the first is the processes of conceptualization that connects the intention to speak and the concepts to be verbally expressed. The second is the process of formulation, which is the creation of the linguistic form of the idea meant to be expressed. This process can be broken down into the processes of grammatical encoding, which is the selection of semantically appropriate lexical items and the generation of a syntactic frame, and phonological encoding, which is the choosing of a phonetic form for the intended utterance. The third level is the processes of articulation, involving the retrieval of the phonetic plan, as well as the initiation and execution of articulation
        A conversation can be viewed a as a sequence of conversational moves used by the speaker to convey his meanings and intentions. People tend to improvise using slang words, repeated words, pause, and use what called performance additions: they offer support, sometimes interrupt, and challenge the sentence goals. They also have preconditions that specify context for their appropriate use. These performance additions are used in are one of the main differences between spontaneous speaking and writing.
           Why do we feel the need to use these spontaneous additions while talking and in what way do they serve our purpose? These questions will be discussed in this article through several different views. Performance additions have been viewed in 3 different approaches: the fist approach, endorsed by traditional linguistics, views them as “errors” that are not part of the language and so should not be researched within the linguistic science. The second approach views the performance additions as errors as well but claim they should be researched for what they reveal about our process of language production. And lastly, the third approach views that at least some performance additions are a part of language

Error Correction in the ESL Classroom
            Some teachers correct every mistake made by their students. Other teachers rarely or never correct their students' mistakes. In Teacher Joe's experience, both approaches have serious weaknesses. The first approach makes students nervous and leads to a lack of fluency. The second approach can lead to students who speak but whose English is hard to understand.
         It is better to avoid either extreme. ESL teachers should try to find a middle approach. We need to choose the right time to correct and the right time to let students speak freely. Corrections should only be made when students will receive the most benefit. Here are some times when you should correct students:
1. Correct students when they can't find the right way to proceed. When they are searching for the right word, phrase, or grammar, you can help them.
2. After several students have made the same mistake, make a note of it and plan an activity for a LATER lesson. Don't interrupt what they are doing, but don't ignore the mistake either.
3. Correct students when there is a real possibility for misunderstanding, for example if a student is talking about a past event but uses the wrong verb tense which could confuse the listener. You must explain this mistake when it happens, otherwise it will lead to other misunderstandings in the future.
The next question is, HOW should we correct students mistakes? Here, too, Teacher Joe has an opinion. There are two things you should include in any                correction:
1. Explain why it is a mistake - how does it lead to miscommunication? Will this word choice lead people to believe something that is false? When talking about one thing, will using plural nouns by mistake lead to false assumptions? When students understand why, they are more motivated to remember correct English.
2. ALWAYS show students a better way! Don't just tell them they are wrong, give them an example, in a sentence, to reinforce your correction. Sometimes, two or three examples are helpful. If it's a particularly difficult point, you can even have the whole class practice the correct sentences out loud so that everyone gets it.
Three ways to - correct students' speaking
           The constant dilemma: to correct and encourage accuracy or not to correct and encourage fluency. Interrupting your students when they make mistakes risks making them nervous and hesitant speakers. Not doing so may deprive them of a valuable learning opportunity.
            In general, it is often worth avoiding interrupting students as much as you can. Immediate correction can be useful when you are interacting with the class but when students are involved in pair or group activities, delayed correction is better. Listen while the students are working and make mental notes of the most important mistakes. Let them complete the activity. Then you draw attention to the mistake and invite the student to correct it. Most mistakes in speaking are what we call 'slips'. Slips are mistakes which the student can correct if you draw attention to the mistake.
         The techniques below may be used for both immediate and delayed correction.
1. Asking for repetition without indicating the mistake.
    Many teachers use a rolling movement of the hand to ask the student to repeat without indicating where the mistake falls. In many cases students will be able to self-correct when you have indicated there is a mistake.
2. Drawing attention to mistakes and prompting self-correction.
      Many teachers use their fingers to indicate the position of mistakes and prompt the student to self-correct. For example, if a student wants to say:
'The motorcycle was invented in 1885.'
but the student actually says:
'The motorcycle was invent in 1885.'
The teacher puts up three fingers and touches the first finger and says IN, then touches the second finger and says VENT, and finally touches the third finger and looks at the student with a questioning facial expression.
Or, if the student is trying to say:
'Mount Everest was first climbed in 1953.'
And the student actually says:
'Mount Everest was first clime bed in 1953.'

The teacher first indicates where the problem exists:
The teacher then indicates the link between the two syllables, saying 'clime-bed' and then bringing the two fingers together.
3. Peer correction
       Sometimes the student cannot self-correct (although they should always be given the opportunity). In this case you can prompt another student to provide the correction. After doing this, return to the original student to get the self-correction.

          Beware of allowing two or three students in the class to become the ones who always provide peer correction. Correction of mistakes should be a task shared by all the students in the class.

[Illustrations from Mistakes and Correction by Julian Edge - Longman 1989, now out of print.]

Word formation processes: Ways of creating new words in English
1. Affixation:  adding a derivational affix to a word. Examples: abuser, refusal, untie, inspection, pre-cook.
2. Compounding: joining two or more words into one new word. Examples: skateboard, whitewash, cat lover, self-help, red-hot, etc.
3. Zero derivation: (also called conversion or functional shift): Adding no affixes; simply using a word of one category as a word of another category. Examples: Noun-verb: comb, sand, knife, butter, referee, proposition.
4. Stress shift: no affix is added to the base, but the stress is shifted from one syllable to the other. With the stress shift comes a change in category.
Noun            Verb
cómbine      combíne
ímplant         implánt
réwrite          rewríte
tránsport      transpórt
Noun              Adjective
cóncrete        concréte
ábstract         abstráct
5. Clipping: shortening of a polysyllabic word. Examples: bro (< brother), pro (< professional), prof (< professor), math (< mathematics), veg (< 'vegetate', as in veg out in front of the TV),  sub (< substitute or submarine).
6. Acronym formation: forming words from the initials of a group of words that designate one concept. Usually, but not always, capitalized. An acronym is pronounced as a word if the consonants and vowels line up in such a way as to make this possible, otherwise it is pronounced as a string of letter names. Examples: NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), scuba (self-contained underwater breathing apparatus), radar (radio detecting and ranging), NFL (National Football League), AFL-CIO (American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial Organizations).
7. Blending: Parts (which are not morphemes!) of two already-existing words are put together to form a new word. Examples: motel (motor hotel) brunch (breakfast & lunch), smog (smoke & fog), telethon (television & marathon), modem (modulator & demodulator), Spanglish (Spanish & English).
8. Backformation: A suffix identifiable from other words is cut off of a base which has previously not been a word; that base then is used as a root, and becomes a word through widespread use. Examples: pronunciate (< pronunciation < pronounce), resurrect (< resurrection), enthuse (< enthusiasm), self-destruct (< self-destruction < destroy), burgle (< burglar), attrit (< attrition), burger (< hamburger). This differs from clipping in that, in clipping, some phonological part of the word which is not interpretable as an affix or word is cut off (e.g. the '-essor' of 'professor' is not a suffix or word; nor is the '-ther' of 'brother'. In backformation, the bit chopped off is a recognizable affix or word ('ham ' in 'hamburger'), '-ion' in 'self-destruction'. Backformation is the result of a false but plausible morphological analysis of the word; clipping is a strictly phonological process that is used to make the word shorter. Clipping is based on syllable structure, not morphological analysis. It is impossible for you to recognize backformed words or come up with examples from your own knowledge of English, unless you already know the history of the word. Most people do not know the history of the words they know; this is normal.
9. Adoption of brand names as common words: a brand name becomes the name for the item or process associated with the brand name. The word ceases to be capitalized and acts as a normal verb/noun (i.e. takes inflections such as plural or past tense). The companies using the names usually have copyrighted them and object to their use in public documents, so they should be avoided in formal writing (or a lawsuit could follow!) Examples: xerox, kleenex, band-aid, kitty litter.
10. Onomatopoeia (pronounced: 'onno-motto-pay-uh'): words are invented which (to native speakers at least) sound like the sound they name or the entity which produces the sound. Examples: hiss, sizzle, cuckoo, cock-a-doodle-doo, buzz, beep, ding-dong.
11. Borrowing: a word is taken from another language. It may be adapted to the borrowing language's phonological system to varying degrees. Examples: skunk, tomato (from indigenous languages of the Americas), sushi, taboo, wok (from Pacific Rim languages), chic, shmuck, macho, spaghetti, dirndl, psychology, telephone, physician, education (from European languages), hummus, chutzpah, cipher, artichoke (from Semitic languages), yam, tote, banana (from African languages).

              A perennial problem in semantics is the delineation of its subject matter. The term meaning can be used in a variety of ways, and only some of these correspond to the usual understanding of the scope of linguistic or computational semantics. We shall take the scope of semantics to be restricted to the literal interpretations of sentences in a context, ignoring phenomena like irony, metaphor, or conversational implicature .
               A standard assumption in computationally oriented semantics is that knowledge of the meaning of a sentence can be equated with knowledge of its truth conditions: that is, knowledge of what the world would be like if the sentence were true. This is not the same as knowing whether a sentence is true, which is (usually) an empirical matter, but knowledge of truth conditions is a prerequisite for such verification to be possible. Meaning as truth conditions needs to be generalized somewhat for the case of imperatives or questions, but is a common ground among all contemporary theories, in one form or another, and has an extensive philosophical justification, e.g
                        A semantic description of a language is some finitely stated mechanism that allows us to say, for each sentence of the language, what its truth conditions are. Just as for grammatical description, a semantic theory will characterize complex and novel sentences on the basis of their constituents: their meanings, and the manner in which they are put together. The basic constituents will ultimately be the meanings of words and morphemes. The modes of combination of constituents are largely determined by the syntactic structure of the language. In general, to each syntactic rule combining some sequence of child constituents into a parent constituent, there will correspond some semantic operation combining the meanings of the children to produce the meaning of the parent.
                      Some natural language processing tasks (e.g., message routing, textual information retrieval, translation) can be carried out quite well using statistical or pattern matching techniques that do not involve semantics in the sense assumed above. However, performance on some of these tasks improves if semantic processing is involved. (Not enough progress has been made to see whether this is true for all of the tasks).
Some tasks, however, cannot be carried out at all without semantic processing of some form. One important example application is that of database query, of the type chosen for the Air Travel Information Service (ATIS) task [DAR89]. For example, if a user asks, ``Does every flight from London to San Francisco stop over in Reykyavik?'' then the system needs to be able to deal with some simple semantic facts. Relational databases do not store propositions of the form every X has property P and so a logical inference from the meaning of the sentence is required. In this case, every X has property P is equivalent to there is no X that does not have property P and a system that knows this will also therefore know that the answer to the question is no if a non-stopping flight is found and yes otherwise.
               Any kind of generation of natural language output (e.g., summaries of financial data, traces of KBS system operations) usually requires semantic processing. Generation requires the construction of an appropriate meaning representation, and then the production of a sentence or sequence of sentences which express the same content in a way that is natural for a reader to comprehend, e.g., [MKS94]. To illustrate, if a database lists a 10 a.m.\ flight from London to Warsaw on the 1st--14th, and 16th--30th of November, then it is more helpful to answer the question What days does that flight go? by Every day except the 15th instead of a list of 30 days of the month. But to do this the system needs to know that the semantic representations of the two propositions are equivalent.

                  It is instructive, though not historically accurate, to see the development of contemporary semantic theories as motivated by the deficiencies that are uncovered when one tries to take the FOPC example further as a model for how to do natural language semantics. For example, the technique of associating set theoretic denotations directly with syntactic units is clear and straightforward for the artificial FOPC example. But when a similar programme is attempted for a natural language like English, whose syntax is vastly more complicated, the statement of the interpretation clauses becomes in practice extremely baroque and unwieldy, especially so when sentences that are semantically but not syntactically ambiguous are considered [Coo83]. For this reason, in most semantic theories, and in all computer implementations, the interpretation of sentences is given indirectly. A syntactically disambiguated sentence is first translated into an expression of some artificial logical language, where this expression in its turn is given an interpretation by rules analogous to the interpretation rules of FOPC. This process factors out the two sources of complexity whose product makes direct interpretation cumbersome: reducing syntactic variation to a set of common semantic constructs; and building the appropriate set-theoretical objects to serve as interpretations.
              The first large scale semantic description of this type was developed by]. Montague made a further departure from the model provided by FOPC in using a more powerful logic (intensional logic) as an intermediate representation language. All later approaches to semantics follow Montague in using more powerful logical languages: while FOPC captures an important range of inferences (involving, among others, words like every, and some as in the example above), the range of valid inference patterns in natural languages is far wider. Some of the constructs that motivate the use of richer logics are sentences involving concepts like necessity or possibility and propositional attitude verbs like believe or know, as well as the inference patterns associated with other English quantifying expressions like most or more than half, which cannot be fully captured within FOPC .
                For Montague, and others working in frameworks descended from that tradition (among others, Partee, e.g., [Par86], Krifka, e.g., [Kri89], and Groenendijk and Stokhof, e.g., [GS84,GS91a]) the intermediate logical language was merely a matter of convenience which could in principle always be dispensed with provided the principle of compositionality was observed. (I.e., The meaning of a sentence is a function of the meanings of its constituents, attributed to Frege, [Fre92]). For other approaches, (e.g., Discourse Representation Theory, [Kam81]) an intermediate level of representation is a necessary component of the theory, justified on psychological grounds, or in terms of the necessity for explicit reference to representations in order to capture the meanings of, for example, pronouns or other referentially dependent items, elliptical sentences or sentences ascribing mental states (beliefs, hopes, intentions). In the case of computational implementations, of course, the issue of the dispensability of representations does not arise: for practical purposes, some kind of meaning representation is a sine qua non for any kind of computing.
          Discourse Representation Theory (DRT) [Kam81,KR93], as the name implies, has taken the notion of an intermediate representation as an indispensable theoretical construct, and, as also implied, sees the main unit of description as being a discourse rather than sentences in isolation. One of the things that makes a sequence of sentences constitute a discourse is their connectivity with each other, as expressed through the use of pronouns and ellipsis or similar devices. This connectivity is mediated through the intermediate representation, however, and cannot be expressed without it.
                   Dynamic semantics takes the view that the standard truth-conditional view of sentence meaning deriving from the paradigm of FOPC does not do sufficient justice to the fact that uttering a sentence changes the context it was uttered in. Deriving inspiration in part from work on the semantics of programming languages, dynamic semantic theories have developed several variations on the idea that the meaning of a sentence is to be equated with the changes it makes to a context.
Update semantics (e.g., [Vel85,vEdV92]) approaches have been developed to model the effect of asserting a sequence of sentences in a particular context. In general, the order of such a sequence has its own significance. A sequence like:
Someone's at the door. Perhaps it's John. It's Mary!
is coherent, but not all permutations of it would be:
Someone's at the door. It's Mary. Perhaps it's John.
Recent strands of this work make connections with the artificial intelligence literature on truth maintenance and belief revision .
Dynamic predicate logic [GS91a,GS90] extends the interpretation clauses for FOPC (or richer logics) by allowing assignments of denotations to subexpressions to carry over from one sentence to its successors in a sequence. This means that dependencies that are difficult to capture in FOPC or other non-dynamic logics, such as that between someone and it in:
Someone's at the door. It's Mary.
           can be correctly modeled, without sacrificing any of the other advantages that traditional logics offer.
                  One of the assumptions of most semantic theories descended from Montague is that information is total, in the sense that in every situation, a proposition is either true or it is not. This enables propositions to be identified with the set of situations (or possible worlds) in which they are true. This has many technical conveniences, but is descriptively incorrect, for it means that any proposition conjoined with a tautology (a logical truth) will remain the same proposition according to the technical definition. But this is clearly wrong: all cats are cats is a tautology, but The computer crashed, and The computer crashed and all cats are cats are clearly different propositions (reporting the first is not the same as reporting the second, for example).
Situation theory [BP83          has attempted to rework the whole logical foundation underlying the more traditional semantic theories in order to arrive at a satisfactory formulation of the notion of a partial state of the world or situation, and in turn, a more satisfactory notion of proposition.     This reformulation has also attempted to generalize the logical underpinnings away from previously accepted restrictions (for example, restrictions prohibiting sets containing themselves, and other apparently paradoxical notions) in order to be able to explore the ability of language to refer to itself in ways that have previously resisted a coherent formal description
Teaching Strategies

        "All students are ELL (English Language Learners)!" All students are LEP (Limited English Proficient) at some point in their education (especially when faced with a new concept and vocabulary). What procedures and ideas can you provide that will help all students in the classroom as well as ESOL students? Good teaching strategies are good for everyone.
           Indeed, good teaching strategies are good for everyone! This question in particular refers to "Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English" or SDAIE, that is, the academic classes taught by qualified teachers who are "endorsed" or "certified" in teaching methods for content area classes in which English Language Learners or ELL’s participate.
                As explained in other questions, ELL’s must be provided equal access to the academic curriculum and to all educational opportunities, curricular and extracurricular, available at a school. ELL’s must be enrolled in academic classes appropriate for their grade level or age. In addition, ELL’s must receive English Language Development (ELD or English-As-A-Second Language/ESL) instruction and primary language support, as needed, to insure equal opportunity for academic achievement and to prevent any substantive academic deficits.
              In SDAIE classes ALL students can participate: English-only speakers and ELL’s at all stages of language acquisition: ELL’s at Pre-Production, Early Production, Speech Emergence and Intermediate Fluency levels, and former ELL’s now re-designated as Fluent English Proficient (FEP) students.
           What are the methods, techniques or strategies that a teacher can use to successfully promote content area concept development with such a heterogeneous group of students?

1.                   Emphasis on the Academic Language: This is the key instructional component in SDAIE. It is NOT to develop general English language skills, but to develop the use of, and proficiency in, the academic language of the content areas. This key component of SDAIE is the same for ALL students, English-only speakers and English Language Learners. Teachers must make sure that the academic language is mastered, otherwise teachers cannot obtain evidence of learning. To facilitate mastery teachers must implement two essential "best instructional practices:" Posting the academic language: ALL words, not just a few key words. Words need to be organized by meaning categories, for example, "clean, tidy, neat, spotless, immaculate, impeccable, scrubbed, disinfected, sterilized, pristine, etc." THEN POST THE CATEGORY!!!!!  Consciously using the academic language constantly, and requiring that all students express themselves using the academic language, too. That is why all academic language words must be posted: For teacher and students TO ALWAYS REMEMBER to use them!
2.                   Active Learning: Students must be constantly giving the teacher EVIDENCE OF LEARNING. To provide the teacher with evidence of learning, students must DO some observable action or behavior that the teacher has requested. Throughout the lesson, the teacher must plan educational activities that give students opportunities to:Observe, Recognize, Locate, Identify, Classify, Practice, Collect, Distinguish, Categorize, Repeat, Match, Show, Select, Construct, Assemble, Arrange, Put Things In Order, Etc. Name, Recall, Give Examples, Draw, Organize, Decide, Describe, Tell, Imagine, Restate, Create, Appraise, Dramatiza, Contrast, Compare, Question, Map, Discriminate, Etc. List, Underline, Review, Interprete, Compose, Dictate, Point Out, Record, Report, Predict, Express, Plan And Evaluate. Relate, Generalize, Demonstrate, Outline, Summarize, Suppose, Estimate, Judge, Explain, Debate, Illustrate, Infer, Revise, Rewrite, Assess, Interprete, Justify, Critique, Etc. All of the above are observable actions that help teachers obtain EVIDENCE OF LEARNING.
3.                   Assessing/Tapping Prior Knowledge: Teachers must become very familiar with the background knowledge that students bring to the learning situation so they can ALWAYS emphasize what students already know, have experienced, are familiar with, and build on those bases that prior knowledge, experience and familiarity provide. Visuals, realia, posted academic language from previous lessons, all kinds of connections to prior knowledge, experience and familiarity need to become essential components of all lessons.
4.                   Building New Knowledge: Each and every lesson must result in the acquisition of new knowledge by students. To determine if new knowledge has been acquired as the result of a lesson, it is only necessary to check on the acquisition of new academic language. EACH WORD IS A CONCEPT. A student who has acquired and begins to use appropriately new academic language at the end of each lesson is a students who has acquired new knowledge. If at the end of an instructional day the students go home without mastery of at least one new academic word, no new knowledge has been provided or mastered during that entire instructional day. It was a nice school day for reviewing what students already knew. But it was a day when students did not BUILD any new knowledge.
5.                   Collaborative Problem-Solving; Cooperative and Other Groupings: Teachers need to plan instruction through educational activities that provide for flexible groupings of students to meet specific purposes. In SDAIE there are many levels of language proficiency. ELL’s may be at different stages of language acquisition: Pre-Production, Early-Production, Speech Emergence, Intermediate Fluency. Fluent English speakers may be English-only speakers or former ELL’s now redesignated Fluent English Proficiency (FEP) students. Teachers need to implement varied instructional activities where heterogeneous students can work productively. 7
6.                   Cultural Affirmation / Multicultural Perspectives: English Language Learners (ELL’s) and English-only students all bring to each and every lesson their prior knowledge, their own experiences, their cultural backgrounds. ELL’s may come from many different countries and English-only students may come from many parts of the United States or the English-speaking areas of the world. Each and every student brings something unique to the learning situation. SDAIE content area teachers need to acknowledge that, and need to affirm the value of each student to the cooperative effort of the lesson by acknowledging the individual contributions of each student. SDAIE content area teachers also need to expand the limited experiences and knowledge of each student to include the contributions of many individuals from many backgrounds to the advancement of knowledge.
7.                   Demonstration and Modeling: Here is the most crucial instructional component in ALL lessons, but particularly in SDAIE lessons. The key role of the teacher is to demonstrate and model all the behaviors to be learned in the lesson, ESPECIALLY THE VERBAL BEHAVIORS EXPECTED TO BE MASTERED BY THE STUDENTS, that is, the language of the content areas. ALL teachers must remember that for most students, and especially for ALL English Language Learners, TEACHERS are the ONLY role models that students will ever come in contact with for the language of the content areas. In today’s world, few parents have the time or the energy –or the knowledge—to discuss the concepts of the content areas using the language of the content areas at home. ONLY TEACHERS can provide that.
8.                   Graphic Organizers: The language of the content areas, the language of a new reading selection students are about to begin reading, all words students DO NOT KNOW that are used in what students are about to listen or read, all those words MUST BE UNDERSTOOD BEFORE students listen or read. Thus, the SDAIE and the ESL/ELD teachers, cooperatively, must help students acquire, practice, develop, learn, and master 95-100% of the new vocabulary BEFORE they listen or read. Instructional activities that, through visuals, manipulatives, realia, dramatization, or any other means, help students master the new academic vocabulary BEFORE the content area lesson begins, are very important. Graphic organizers can be used to help students become aware of what they know and the new words they are about to learn. Graphic organizers that group words in categories by MEANING are the most effective means to introduce new words. WORD DEFINITIONS, or looking up the meaning of words in a dictionary, ARE NOT the most effective means to introduce new words. For younger ELL’s and for ALL young learners, graphic organizers can be used with pictures instead of printed words.
9.                   Integrating Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum: If all instructional strategies described above (1- 8) for the implementation of effective practices in Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) for ALL students, both English-only and English Language Learners, have indeed been implemented, then it follows that students would have had ample opportunities:
(I)   To listen to the new academic language of the lesson as the teacher uses visuals, manipulatives, realia, and other means to physically convey the meaning of the academic language,
(II)  To speak the new academic language through active learning instructional activities,
(III) To see –in posted graphic organizers or categories—the new academic language.  Now students are ready to read the textbook or parts of the textbook or reading selection, and they will do so with 100% understanding the first time around! And then students can write about what they have learned –expressive writing—or answer the textbook questions IN THEIR VERY OWN WORDS. Only when students have been provided fully integrated visual, listening, speaking, reading and writing instructional activities would they be able to provide ample evidence of learning the language of the content areas.
10.               Higher Order Thinking Skills: In SDAIE Strategy Number 2, above, we indicated that students must be engaged in Active Learning and suggested a series of observable behaviors that students can perform to give evidence of learning. That series of observable behaviors, (listed in 2 above) describe simple to complex or higher order thinking skills. Students who can perform these observable behaviors are giving evidence that they are operating and developing from simple to complex or higher order thinking skills.
11.               Questioning techniques: The most effective tool a teacher has to promote all of the above SDAIE Strategies is the question. Every time a teacher asks a question the student must actively respond – active learning. Through questions, teachers can monitor student use of the language of the content areas. Questions help assess prior knowledge and provide the most effective tool to obtain evidence of learning. Through questions teachers can provide new information to students while demonstrating and modeling the use of the academic language. Questions can be asked at the lowest –knowledge—and the highest –evaluation—levels of thinking skills. Questions give teachers the best opportunity to provide opportunities for students to listen and to speak.  In fact, questioning techniques allow a teacher to keep control of (h)is/er classroom while helping students succeed. How? By  controlling the level of LANGUAGE difficulty of the questions.  The following four questions all have the exact same answer. Thus, a teacher can choose which question to ask a student depending on how much knowledge the student has. By choosing the right question appropriate for each student, teachers can promote learning while at the same time allow students to experience success.
1. Who was the 22nd President of the United States?
2. Who was the 22nd President, was it Nixon, Cleveland, John Quincy Adams or Zachary Taylor?
3. Who was the 22nd President, was it Abraham Lincoln, Reagan, John Adams or Cleveland?
4. Cleveland was the 22nd President of the United States, right?
12.               The Teacher is a Facilitator of Learning: Because a teacher must be constantly interacting with students, teachers in SDAIE content area classes have a primary role of facilitators. Through visual aids and manipulatives, verbal and non-verbal cues, teachers guided students into practicing the academic language as they acquire the concepts represented by the words.  These twelve instructional strategies characterize effective lessons in Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English for ALL learners.

((Be a hero, Be a learner
Touch the future, Be a teacher))

           There are four other approaches to language teaching that have been widely used in 20th century. (Cognitive approach, Affective Humanistic approach, Comprehension Based approach, Communicativa approach)
Approach to language teaching is something that reflects a certain model or research paradigm a theory. The broadest term of the three.
Method is a set of procedures, i.e. a system that spells out rather precisely how to teach a language. Methods are more specific than approaches.
Technique is a classroom device or activity and thus represents the narrowest term of the three concepts.
A) Grammar Translation Approach (extension)
1.           Instruction is given in native language
2.           Little use of target language
3.           Focus on grammar (the form and inflection of words)
4.           Early reading of difficult texts
5.           Translation from target language into mother tongue
6.           There may be inability to use language for communication
7.           Teacher doesn’t have to be able to speak the target language
B) Direct Approach : a reaction to GMT. and its failure of communication
1.           No use of mother tongue
2.           Lesson begins with dialogs and anecdotes in modern conversational style
3.           Literary works are read for pleasure and there is no grammatical analyse
4.           The target culture is also read inductively
5.           Actions and pictures are used for meaning
6.           Grammar is learned inductively (tümevarımsal)
7.           Teacher must be native speaker or have native like proficiency
C) Reading Approach : a reaction to impracticality of direct approach
1.           Grammar useful for reading comprehension is taught
2.           Vocabulary is controlled first, then expanded
3.           Translation is intensive
4.           Reading is the only language skill emphasized
5.           Teacher doesn’t need to have oral profciency
D) Audiolingualism (a reaction to the lack of oral aural (sözel işitsel) skills in reading approach. It is like Direct Approach but adds from structural linguistics and behavioral psychology)
1.           Lessons begin with dialogs
2.           Mimicry and memorization for habit formation
3.           Grammatiacal structures are sequenced and rule are taught inductively
4.           Skills are sequenced (listen, speak, read, writing postponed)
5.           Pronunciation (telaffuz) at the beginning
6.           Vocabulary is limited at the beginning
7.           Preventing from learner errors
8.           Language use without regard tocontext meaning
9.           Teacher must be proficient in thr structures, vocabulary
E) Situational Approach (a reaction to the lack of oral aural skills in Reading Approach. It draws much from direct Approach but adds from Firthian (İskoç) Linguistics and language pedagogy))
1.           Spoken language is primary
2.           Language is practiced orally. After an oral base in lexical and grammatical forms reading and writing comes.
3.           Target language should be used
4.           Most general and useful lexical items are to be ensured.
5.           Grammatical structures are graded from simple to difficult
6.           Lexical and grammatical items should be given in situations (i.e. at the bank, etc.)
F) Cognitive Approach (a reaction to behaviorist features of Audiolingual Approach)
1.           Rule acquisition not habit formation
2.           Individualized instruction
3.           Grammar must be taught but it can be both deductively (rules first practice later) and inductively (rules after practice)
4.           Pronunciation isn emphasized a little
5.           Read and write as well as listen and speak
6.           Vocabulary instruction is important especially in intermadiate and advanced levels
7.           Errors are inevitable and useful for learning
8.           Teacher must have general proficiency and analyzing ability of target language
G) Affective Humanistic Approach (a reaction to the lack of affective considerations of Audiolingua-lism and Cognitive code)
1.           Individual feelings of each student and teacher
2.           Meaningful communication
3.           Instruction in pairs and small groups
4.           Class atmosphere is more important than materials or methods
5.           Peer support and interaction
6.           Learning a foreign language is a self realization
7.           Teacher is counsellor or facilitator
8.           Teacher must be proficient both in target and student’s native language since translation may be used for student’s good feeling
H) Comprehension Based Approach (a researh of foreign language learning is like first language acquisition)
1.           Listening comprehension is very important. It develops speaking, reading and writing.
2.           Listening meaninful speech and respond nonverbally
3.           Not speaking until being ready
4.           Meaningful input
5.           Error correction is unnecessary, understanding is most important
6.           Teacher must be native (or near native) sapeker. If not audiotapes or videotapes.
I) Communicative (konuşkan) Approach (Anthropologic and Firthian linguistics )
1.           The goal is learner ability to communicate
2.           Content of language not just linguistic structures but semantic nations and social functions
3.           To transfer meaning work in pairs and groups
4.           Adjusting the use of target language in different social contexts by role plays and dramatizations
5.           Authentic materials
6.           All skills from the beginning for learners are edicated and literate
7.           Teacher primarily faciliate the communication secondarily correct errors
8.           Teacher uses the target language fluently and appropriately

Cognitive Approach: language is rule governed cognitive behaviour (not habit formation)
Affective Humanistic Approach: language learning is a process of self realization and relating to other people
Comprehension Approah: language acquisition appears when learner comprehends meaninful input
Communicative Approach: purpose of language is communication 
Understanding the concepts of APPROACH, METHOD and TECHNIQUE
Approach is general (e.g. Cognitive), Method is a specific set of procedures more or less compatible with an approach (e.g. Silant Way), Technique is a very specific type of learning activity used in one or more methods (e.g. using rods).  
Grammar Translation Approach,
Direct Approach
Audiolingual Approach         Structual syllabus (organized courses, teaching
Cognitive Approach             materials around grammar)        
Some methods following Comprehension Approach 
Reading Approach              →  Text based syllabus (around texts and
                                                    vocabulary items minor grammar)
Situational Approach          → Dual objective syllabus (around various  
                                                   situation with structure and vocabulary)
Communicative Approach → communicative syllabus (around notions like            
                                                 location, agei degree and functions like asking           
                                                   for information)
Affective Hum. Approach  →     Learner Generated syllabus (learner decide
                                                what to learn, what to do)

What is Behaviorism?
·              School of thought popular in psychology and related fields in the 1930’s-1950’s
·                Holds that objectively observable behavior is the only acceptable means of data analysis
·               Emphasizes the role of environment in learning and development (nurture)
·               Learning consists of habits constructed through stimulus-response associations
Who is Bloomfield?
·                  1887-1949
·                  “Father of American Linguistics”—descriptive tradition, structuralist, behaviorist
·                    Trained as IEist, but went on to Tagalog and Algonquian languages

Passage from Language (1933), 22-26

A.             A.    Practical events preceding the act of speech
B.             B.    Speech
C.             C.    Practical events following the act of speech

S                             R                          (speechless reaction)
S                  r . . . . . . s                   R  (reaction mediated by speech)

What elements of Behaviorism did you find in the Bloomfield passage?

·                   Speech is the practical reaction (response) to some stimulus
·                   Object of study: observable events (behavior)

Language learning seen setting up stimulusàresponse pairs, a.k.a. habits

·                   Babbling sets up stimulusàresponse pairs: you make certain movements with your mouth and hear certain sounds
·              “Imitation” is just a response to the aural stimulus
 Association of vocal patterns and objects also stimulusàresponse pairs
·                   Adult emotion of “asking or wanting” a more advanced stimulusàresponse pairs
·                In addition, Bloomfield claimed that child receives reinforcement for more correct vocal/object pairs
Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis
Based in behaviorist thinking:
·                 SLA seen as the development of a new set of habits
·                 Positive vs. Negative transfer (of habits)

Main tenants of CAH (strong version):
·                 Main source of errors in L2 due to transfer of L1 habits
·                  Errors can be predicted by a contrastive analysis of the L1 and L2
·                 The greater the difference between L1 and L2, the more errors that will occur

Problems with CAH:
·                  Errors occur that are not due to L1 (
·                 Errors don’t occur when they are predicted (see exs (3-10)-(3-12))
·                  Problems operationalizing the contrastive analysis—how do you measure “difference” and “distance”
·                  Paradigm shift from behaviorist to mentalist views in psychology and linguistics
o                     Errors in child language part of rule formation and not part of child’s linguistic environment
o                     Imitation and reinforcement/correction don’t seem to be important to language acquisition
English phonology is the study of the phonology (i.e. the sound system) of the English language. Like all languages, spoken English has wide variation in its pronunciation both diachronically and synchronically from dialect to dialect. This variation is especially salient in English, because the language is spoken over such a wide territory, being the predominant language in Australia, Canada, the Commonwealth Caribbean, Ireland, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States in addition to being spoken as a first or second language by people in countries on every continent, and notably in South Africa and India. In general the regional dialects of English are mutually intelligible.
Although there are many dialects of English, the following are usually used as prestige or standard accents: Received Pronunciation for the United Kingdom, General American for the United States and General Australian for Australia.



See IPA chart for English for concise charts of the English phonemes.
The number of speech sounds in English varies from dialect to dialect, and any actual tally depends greatly on the interpretation of the researcher doing the counting. The Longman Pronunciation Dictionary by John C. Wells, for example, using symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet, denotes 24 consonants and 23 vowels used in Received Pronunciation, plus two additional consonants and four additional vowels used in foreign words only. For General American it provides for 25 consonants and 19 vowels, with one additional consonant and three additional vowels for foreign words. The American Heritage Dictionary, on the other hand, suggests 25 consonants and 18 vowels (including r-colored vowels) for American English, plus one consonant and five vowels for non-English terms [1].


The following table shows the consonant phonemes found in most dialects of English. When consonants appear in pairs, fortis consonants (i.e. aspirated or voiceless) appear on the left and lenis consonants (i.e. lightly voiced or voiced) appear on the right:
Consonant phonemes of English




p  b

t  d

k  ɡ

tʃ  dʒ

f  v
θ  ð
s  z
ʃ  ʒ


r1, 4
(ʍ)3  w 2

l1, 5

1.   Nasals and liquids may be syllabic in unstressed syllables.
2.   Postalveolar consonants are usually labialized (e.g. [ʃʷ] though this is rarely transcribed).
3.   The voiceless velar fricative and voiceless labiovelar approximant are dialectal with the former occurring largely in Scottish English and the latter being retained in much of the American South and Scottish English. In other dialects, words with these sounds are pronounced with /k/ and /w/ respectively.
4.   Depending on dialect, /r/ may be an alveolar, a postalveolar, a retroflex approximant or a labio-dental approximant.
5.   /l/ is velarized in the syllable coda






whine (also transcribed /hw/)

run (also transcribed /r/ or /ɻ/)



The vowels of English differ considerably between dialects. Because of this, corresponding vowels may be transcribed with various symbols depending on the dialect under consideration. When considering English as a whole, no specific phoneme symbols are picked over others; instead lexical sets are used, each named by a word containing the vowel in question. For example, the vowel of the LOT set ("short O") is transcribed /ɒ/ in Received Pronunciation, /ɑ/ in General American, and /ɔ/ in Australian English. For an overview of the correspondences see IPA chart for English dialects.
Monophthongs of Received Pronunciation[1]







Monophthongs of Australian English






The monophthong phonemes of General American differ in a number of ways from Received Pronunciation:
1.   Vowels are more equal in length, differing mainly in quality.
2.   The central vowel of nurse is rhotic /ɝ/ or a syllabic /ɹ̩/.
3.   Speakers make a phonemic distinction between rhotic /ɚ/ and non-rhotic /ə/
4.   No distinction is made between /ɒ/ and /ɑ/, nor for many people with /ɔ/.
Reduced vowels occur in unstressed syllables.
  • [ɨ]: roses (merged with [ə] in Australian English)
  • [ə]: Rosa’s, runner
  • [l̩]: bottle
  • [n̩]: button
  • [m̩]: rhythm
English diphthongs









/eː/ ²


1.   Canadian English, exhibits allophony of /aʊ/ and /aɪ/ called Canadian raising. The phenomenon also occurs (especially for /aɪ/) in many US speakers, in South Atlantic English, and in the Fens.
2.   In Received Pronunciation, the vowels in lair and lure may be monophthongized to [ɛː] and [oː] respectively.[2] Australian English speakers more readily monophthongize the former but it is listed here anyway.
3.   In Rhotic dialects, words like pair, poor, and peer can be analyzed as diphthongs, although other descriptions analyze them as vowels with /ɹ/ in the coda.[citation needed]

Transcription variants

The choice of which symbols to use for phonemic transcriptions may reveal theoretical assumptions or claims on the part of the transcriber. English 'lax' and 'tense' vowels are distinguished by a synergy of features, such as height, length, and transition (monophthong vs. diphthong); different traditions in the linguistic literature emphasize different ones. For example, if the primary feature is thought to be vowel height, then the non-reduced vowels of General American English may be represented as follows:
General American full vowels,
vowel height distinctive


ɚ, ə

If, on the other hand, vowel length is considered to be the deciding factor, the following symbols may be chosen:
General American full vowels,
vowel length distinctive



(This convention has sometimes been used because the publisher did not have IPA fonts available, though that is seldom an issue any longer.)
If vowel transition is taken to be paramount, then the chart may look like one of these:
General American full vowels,
vowel transition distinctive



General American full vowels,
vowel transition distinctive








(The transcriber at left assumes that there is no phonemic distinction between semivowels and approximants, so that /ej/ is equivalent to /eɪ̯/.)
Many linguists combine more than one of these features in their transcriptions, suggesting they consider the phonemic differences to be more complex than a single feature.

Distribution of allophones

Although regional variation is very great across English dialects, some generalizations can be made about pronunciation in all (or at least the vast majority) of English accents:
Initial-stress-derived nouns mean that stress changes in many English words came about between noun and verb senses of a word. For example, a rebel [ˈɹɛ.bɫ̩] (stress on the first syllable) is inclined to rebel [ɹɪ.ˈbɛɫ] (stress on the second syllable) against the powers that be. The number of words using this pattern as opposed to only stressing the second syllable in all circumstances doubled every century or so, now including the English words object, convict, and addict.
  • The voiceless stops /p t k/ are aspirated at the beginnings of words (for example tomato) and at the beginnings of word-internal stressed syllables (for example potato).
  • A distinction is made between tense and lax vowels in pairs like beet/bit and bait/bet, although the exact phonetic implementation of the distinction varies from accent to accent. However, this distinction collapses before [ŋ].
  • For many people, /r/ is somewhat labialized in some environments, as in reed [ɹʷiːd] and tree [tɹʷiː]. In the latter case, the [t] may be slightly labialized as well.[3]
  • Wherever /r/ originally followed a tense vowel or diphthong (in Early Modern English) a schwa offglide was inserted, resulting in centering diphthongs like [iə] in beer [biəɹ], [uə] in poor [puəɹ], [aɪə] in fire [faɪəɹ], [aʊə] in sour [saʊəɹ], and so forth. This phenomenon is known as breaking. The subsequent history depends on whether the accent in question is rhotic or not: In non-rhotic accents like RP the postvocalic [ɹ] was dropped, leaving [biə, puə, faɪə, saʊə] and the like (now usually transcribed [bɪə, pʊə] and so forth). In rhotic accents like General American, on the other hand, the [əɹ] sequence was coalesced into a single sound, a non-syllabic [ɚ], giving [biɚ, puɚ, faɪɚ, saʊɚ] and the like (now usually transcribed [bɪɹ, pʊɹ, faɪɹ, saʊɹ] and so forth). As a result, originally monosyllabic words like those just mentioned came to rhyme with originally disyllabic words like seer, doer, higher, power.
  • In many (but not all) accents of English, a similar breaking happens to tense vowels before /l/, resulting in pronunciations like [piəɫ] for peel, [puəɫ] for pool, [peəɫ] for pail, and [poəɫ] for pole.
  • In many dialects, /h/ becomes [ç] before [j], as in human [ˈçjuːmən].


Note: This information applies to RP. Other than variations in the possible onsets with or without final /j/, and the presence or absence of the phoneme /ʍ/, it also applies to the other main varieties of English. /ʍ/ only occurs syllable-initial and does not occur in clusters.

[edit] Syllable structure

The syllable structure in English is (C)(C)(C)V(C)(C)(C)(C), with a maximal example being strengths (/strɛŋkθs/, although it can be pronounced /strɛŋθs/).


There is an on-going sound change (yod-dropping) by which /j/ as the final consonant in a cluster is being lost. In RP, words with /sj/ and /lj/ can usually be pronounced with or without this sound, e.g., [suːt] or [sjuːt]. For some speakers of English, including some British speakers, the sound change is more advanced and so, for example, in General American /j/ is also not present after /n/, /l/, /s/, /z/, /θ/, /t/ and /d/. In Welsh English it can occur in more combinations, for example in /tʃj/.
The following can occur as the onset:
All single consonant phonemes except /ŋ/

Plosive plus approximant other than /j/:
/pl/, /bl/, /kl/, /ɡl/,
/pr/, /br/, /tr/*, /dr/*, /kr/, /ɡr/,
/tw/, /dw/, /ɡw/, /kw/
play, blood, clean, glove, prize, bring, tree*, dream*, crowd, green, twin, dwarf, language, quick
Voiceless fricative plus approximant other than /j/:
/fl/, /sl/,
/fr/, /θr/, /ʃr/,
/sw/, /θw/
floor, sleep, friend, three, shrimp, swing, thwart
Consonant plus /j/:
/pj/, /bj/, /tj/, /dj/, /kj/, /ɡj/,
/mj/, /nj/, /fj/, /vj/, /θj/,
/sj/, /zj/, /hj/, /lj/
pure, beautiful, tube, during, cute, argue, music, new, few, view, thurifer, suit, Zeus, huge, lurid
/s/ plus voiceless plosive:
/sp/, /st/, /sk/
speak, stop, skill
/s/ plus nasal:
/sm/, /sn/
smile, snow
/s/ plus voiceless fricative:
/s/ plus voiceless plosive plus approximant:
/spl/, /spr/, /spj/, /smj/,
/str/, /stj/,
/skl/, /skr/, /skw/, /skj/
split, spring, spew, smew, street, student, sclerosis, scream, square, skewer
* In General American, /tr/ and /dr/ tend to affricate, so that tree resembles "chree", and dream "jream".[4][5][6] This may be transcribed as [tʃr] and [dʒr] respectively, but the pronunciation varies and may, for example, be closer to [tʂ] and [dʐ][7] or with a fricative release similar in quality to the rhotic, ie. [tɹ̝̊ɹ̥], [dɹ̝ɹ], or [ʈʂɻ], [ɖʐɻ].
Note: A few onsets occur infrequently making it uncertain whether they are native pronunciations or merely non-assimilated borrowings, e.g. /pw/ (pueblo), /bw/ (bwana), /sv/ (svelt), /sr/ (Sri Lanka), /ʃw/ (schwa), /ʃm/ (schmuck), and /sfr/ (sphragistics).


The following can occur as the nucleus:




Most, and in theory all, of the following except those which end with /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/, /tʃ/ or /dʒ/ can be extended with /s/ or /z/ representing the morpheme -s/z-. Similarly most, and in theory all, of the following except those which end with /t/ or /d/ can be extended with /t/ or /d/ representing the morpheme -t/d-.
The following can occur as the coda:
The single consonant phonemes except /h/, /w/, /j/ and, in non-rhotic varieties, /r/

Lateral approximant + plosive: /lp/, /lb/, /lt/, /ld/, /lk/
help, bulb, belt, hold, milk
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + plosive: /rp/, /rb/, /rt/, /rd/, /rk/, /rɡ/
harp, orb, fort, beard, mark, morgue
Lateral approximant + fricative or affricate: /lf/, /lv/, /lθ/, /ls/, /lʃ/, /ltʃ/, /ldʒ/
golf, solve, wealth, else, Welsh, belch, indulge
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + fricative or affricate: /rf/, /rv/, /rθ/ /rs/, /rʃ/, /rtʃ/, /rdʒ/
dwarf, carve, north, force, marsh, arch, large
Lateral approximant + nasal: /lm/, /ln/
film, kiln
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + nasal or lateral: /rm/, /rn/, /rl/
arm, born, snarl
Nasal + homorganic plosive: /mp/, /nt/, /nd/, /ŋk/
jump, tent, end, pink
Nasal + fricative or affricate: /mf/, /mθ/ in non-rhotic varieties, /nθ/, /ns/, /nz/, /ntʃ/, /ndʒ/, /ŋθ/ in some varieties
triumph, warmth, month, prince, bronze, lunch, lounge, length
Voiceless fricative + voiceless plosive: /ft/, /sp/, /st/, /sk/
left, crisp, lost, ask
Two voiceless fricatives: /fθ/
Two voiceless plosives: /pt/, /kt/
opt, act
Plosive + voiceless fricative: /pθ/, /ps/, /tθ/, /ts/, /dθ/, /dz/, /ks/
depth, lapse, eighth, klutz, width, adze, box
Lateral approximant + two consonants: /lpt/, /lfθ/, /lts/, /lst/, /lkt/, /lks/
sculpt, twelfth, waltz, whilst, mulct, calx
In rhotic varieties, /r/ + two consonants: /rmθ/, /rpt/, /rps/, /rts/, /rst/, /rkt/
warmth, excerpt, corpse, quartz, horst, infarct
Nasal + homorganic plosive + plosive or fricative: /mpt/, /mps/, /ndθ/, /ŋkt/, /ŋks/, /ŋkθ/ in some varieties
prompt, glimpse, thousandth, distinct, jinx, length
Three obstruents: /ksθ/, /kst/
sixth, next
Note: For some speakers, a fricative before /θ/ is elided so that these never appear phonetically: /fɪfθ/ becomes [fɪθ], /siksθ/ becomes [sikθ], /twelfθ/ becomes [twelθ].

Syllable-level rules

  • Both the onset and the coda are optional
  • /j/ at the end of an onset (/pj/, /bj/, /tj/, /dj/, /kj/, /fj/, /vj/, /θj/, /sj/, /zj/, /hj/, /mj/, /nj/, /lj/, /spj/, /stj/, /skj/) must be followed by /uː/ or /ʊə/
  • Long vowels and diphthongs are usually not followed by /ŋ/
  • /ʊ/ is rare in syllable-initial position
  • Stop + /w/ before /uː, ʊ, ʌ, aʊ/ are excluded[8]
  • Sequences of /s/ + C1 + + C1, where C1 is the same consonant in both the onset cluster and the coda and is a short vowel, are virtually nonexistent[9]

Word-level rules

  • /ə/ does not occur in stressed syllables
  • /ʒ/ does not occur in word-initial position in native English words although it can occur syllable-initial, eg /trɛʒə(ɹ)/
  • /θj/ occurs in word-initial position in a few obscure words: thew, thurible, etc.; it is more likely to appear syllable initial, e.g. /ɛnθjuz/
  • /m/, /n/, /l/ and, in rhotic varieties, /r/ can be the syllable nucleus (ie a syllabic consonant) in an unstressed syllable following another consonant, especially /t/, /d/, /s/ or /z/
  • Certain short vowel sounds, called checked vowels, cannot occur without a coda in a single syllable word. In RP, the following short vowel sounds are checked: /ɛ/, /æ/, /ɒ/ and /ʌ/.


Stress is phonemic in English. For example, the words desert and dessert are distinguished by stress, as are the noun a record and the verb to record. Stressed syllables in English are louder than non-stressed syllables, as well as being longer and having a higher pitch. They also tend to have a fuller realization than unstressed syllables.
Examples of stress in English words, using boldface to represent stressed syllables, are holiday, alone, admiration, confidential, degree, and weaker. Ordinarily, grammatical words (auxiliary verbs, prepositions, pronouns, and the like) do not receive stress, whereas lexical words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.) must have at least one stressed syllable.
English is a stress-timed language. That is, stressed syllables appear at a roughly steady tempo, and non-stressed syllables are shortened to accommodate this.
Traditional approaches describe English as having three degrees of stress: Primary, secondary, and unstressed. However, if stress is defined as relative respiratory force (that is, it involves greater pressure from the lungs than unstressed syllables), as most phoneticians argue, and is inherent in the word rather than the sentence (that is, it is lexical rather than prosodic), then these traditional approaches conflate two distinct processes: Stress on the one hand, and vowel reduction on the other. In this case, primary stress is actually prosodic stress, whereas secondary stress is simple stress in some positions, and an unstressed but not reduced vowel in others. Either way, there is a three-way phonemic distinction: Either three degrees of stress, or else stressed, unstressed, and reduced. See secondary stress for details.
When a stressed syllable contains a pure vowel (rather than a diphthong), followed by a single consonant and then another vowel, as in holiday, many native speakers feel that the consonant belongs to the preceding stressed syllable, /ˈhɒl.ɨ.deɪ/, or assign it to both the preceding and following syllables. Such consonants are sometimes describes as ambisyllabic. However, when the stressed vowel is a diphthong, as in admiration or weaker, speakers agree that the consonant belongs to the following syllable: /ˈædmɨˈreɪʃən/. (Phonetically, the vowel in weak is also a diphthong, [ij].)


Prosodic stress is extra stress given to words when they appear in certain positions in an utterance, or when they receive special emphasis. It normally appears on the final stressed syllable in an intonation unit. So, for example, when the word admiration is said in isolation, or at the end of a sentence, the syllable ra is pronounced with greater force than the syllable ad. (This is traditionally transcribed as /ˌædmɨˈreɪʃən/.) This is the origin of the primary stress-secondary stress distinction. However, the difference disappears when the word is not pronounced with this final intonation.
Prosodic stress can shift for various pragmatic functions, such as focus or contrast. For instance, consider the dialogue
"Is it brunch tomorrow?"
"No, it's dinner tomorrow."
In this case, the extra stress shifts from the last stressed syllable of the sentence, tomorrow, to the last stressed syllable of the emphasized word, dinner. Compare
"I'm going tomorrow." /aɪm ˌɡoʊɪŋ təˈmɒroʊ/
"I'm going tomorrow." /aɪm ˌɡoʊɪŋ təˈˈmɒroʊ/
"It's dinner tomorrow." /ɪts ˈˈdɪnɚ təˌmɒroʊ/
Although grammatical words generally do not have lexical stress, they do acquire prosodic stress when emphasized. Compare ordinary
"Come in"! /ˈkʌm ɪn/
with more emphatic
"Oh, do come in!" /oʊ ˈˈduː kʌm ˌɪn

English For teachers
1. Specific objectives can be ………….
       a. observable and measurable.
       b. difficult to be observed and measured.
       c. focused on the student's behavior during a long period of time.
       d. 1 and 3
2. The smallest meaningful unit in language is…………..
       a. phoneme.                b. morpheme.             c. allophone.               d. allomorpheme.
·              3. Linguistic approach concentrates on……………..
·                a. key role of self – esteem and sense of mastery.
·                b. value of talk in the development of thinking.
·                c. social interaction is the key to success in learning.
·                d. attention on complex nature of thinking.
·              4. "What about going to the cinema" is an example of ………………..
·                a. advising                   b. warning                   c. offering help           d. suggesting
·              5. One of the following is not a type of literature:
·                a. drama             b. poetry             c. fiction                       d. prose
·              6. All the following may create discipline problems except …………
·                a. using sarcasm                 b. insisting on apologies
·                c. making threats                d. using classroom language that suits the level of students.
·              7. "To look quickly through a reading passage to find something" is called……………
·                a. skimming                b. scanning                 c. silent reading                   d. comprehension 
·              8. The man told his children a …………………… about fairies.
·                a. tail                             b.tale                            c.taile                                     d. teil
·              9. When the teacher allows students to think, and gives more time, the result will be…………..
·                a. students responses becoming more thoughtful and creative.
·                b. less students offering to answer.
·                c. students willing not to ask more questions.
·                d. students giving shorter answers.
·              10. "……….." refers to the actions of the organs of speech in the producing the sound of speech.
·                a. Acoustics                b. Phonetics               c. Articulation             d. Phonics
·              11. One of the following is not a Shakespeare's play:
·                a. Macbeth                  b. Volpone                   c. Twelfth Night                    d. King Lear
·              12. Two of the following are receptive skills:
·                a. reading and speaking             b .speaking and writing    
·              c. reading and writing                    d. listening and reading
·              13." Kinesics" is the study of…………………
·                a. sounds                    b. language                 c. gestures                            d. nature
·              14. Can you close one of the windows, please? I'll catch a cold sitting in this ……….all day.
·                a. flood               b. breeze            c. wind                         d. draught
·              15. Which abbreviation do you use when you want to add something at the end of a letter?
·                a. PS                             b. PTO                c. PM                                      d. PLZ
·              16. I am very tired.   ……………… over four hundred miles today
·                a. I drive              b. I've driven               c. I've been driving              d. I'm  driving
·              17. How ……………….are you?
·                a. weight            b. heavy              c. high                          d. long 
·              18. The prefix ante in the word ante meridiem means………………..
·                a. together                   b. against                    c. before                      d. by oneself
·              19. The stress in the word "comfortable" is on …………….
·                a. com                 b.for                              c. ta                               d. ble
20. In the dialogue:[ Teacher : What day was yesterday? Student: Tuesday.] The teacher uses:
     a. easy question                  b. complex question
     c. open question                 d. narrow question
21. No one suspects us, ………………. ……………………?
     a. are they                             b. don't they                c. do they           d. aren't they
22. Hardly …………… the receiver down than there was a knock at the door.
     a. had I put down                 b. I put down     c. put I down               d. had I downed
23. (ELT) is an abbreviation for :
a. Education Language Teaching.                    b. Educated Learners & Teachers.
c. .English Learning& Teaching.                       d. English Language Teaching.
24. Words that differ by only one phoneme are called…………..
     a. nominal pairs                   b. almost pairs          
c. minimal pairs              d. none of the above
25. Peter has two brothers, but he doesn't speak to ……………….of them.
     a. either                        b. any                           c. both                d. neither
26. The government ………………….. said that the Prim Minister was sick and tired of the papers disappearing from his office.
     a. speaksperson                 b. speak person         c. spoken person      d. spokesperson
27. ………………. refers to the ability to breakdown material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood.
     a. Synthesis                b. Analysis                            c. Application    d. Evaluation
28. A reward or punishment that strengthens or weakens a behaviour is called…………
     a. stimulus                  b. response                 c. reinforcement                  d. conditioning
9. We had a great time ……………the awful weather.
     a. but for             b. in spite of                c. except                      d. inspite
30. I think it's in my left ………………. .
     a. pocket of trousers          b. pocket trousers              
c. trouser pocket               d. trousers pocket
31.    The type of the test that identifies the test – taker's strengths and weaknesses is called a ……… test.
       a. diagnostic               b. placement               c. proficiency              d. summative
32. I am going to go out and ………………..
       a. have cut my hair              b. let my hair cut                 
c. have my hair cut           d. my hair be cut
33. One of the following doesn't contain the sound /θ /
       a. mouth             b. breathe                    c. tooth               d. beneath
34. I'm looking for ………………. to cut this string.
       a. a pair of scissors            b. some scissors                 c. a scissors               d. a scissor
35. One of the following is not from the conditions of motivation.
       a. students are motivated if they live in a secure environment.
       b. students are motivated when the subject matter is interesting.
       c. students are motivated when they experience more failure and success.
       d. students are motivated when they feel the learning for them not for the teacher.
36. " ………………" is learners use of the first patterns language in second language sentence.
       a. Transfer         b. Correlation              c. Attitude                    d. Language acquisition
37. I didn't like it in the city at first, but now …………………. here.
       a. I got  used to living                            b. I am used to living
       c. I used to live                              d. I used to living.
38. The final " ed" in the verb talked is pronounced as:
       a. /d/                                       b. /id/                                      c. /ed/                            d. /t/
39. Safety should come first, ………………. lives shouldn't be put at risk.
       a. people                      b. people's                            c. peoples'                  d. peoples
40. It's ……….. funny film, I laughed all the way through it
       a. so                                       b. extremely                          c. that much                d. such a 
41. The two parties have settled their differences by compromise after a long debate. The underlined word means:
       a. an acceptable middle coarse agreement                  b. negotiation            
c. raising awareness                                              d. revising past records
The secrets of sleep
The secret of sleep were a mystery for centuries simply because there was neither the means to explore them, nor the need. Only when candles gave away to gaslight, and gas to electricity, when man became able to convert night into day, and double his output by working shifts round the clock, did people seriously start wondering if sleep could possibly be a waste of time. Our ability to switch night into day is very recent, and it is questionable if we will ever either want, or be able, to give up our habit of enjoying a good night's sleep. However, a remarkable research project in London has already discovered a few people who actually enjoy insomnia. Even chronic insomniacs often get hours more sleep than they think. But by placing electric contacts beside the eyes and on the head, it is possible to check their complaint by studying the tiny currents we generate which reveal the different brainwaves of sleep and wakefulness. This has shown that for some people, seven or eight hours of sleep a night are quite unnecessary.
       A lot of recent work has shown that too much sleep is bad for you, so that if you are fortunate enough to be born with a body which needs only a small amount of sleep, you may well be healthier and happier than someone who sleeps longer.
       Every attempt to unravel the secret of sleep, and be precise about its function, raises many problems. The sleeper himself cannot tell what is going on and, even when he wakes, has only a very lazy idea of how good or bad a night he has had. The research is expensive and often unpopular, as it inevitably involves working at night. Only in the last few years have experts come up with theories about the function of sleep and the laws which may govern it
       The real advance in sleep research came in 1937 with the use of the electroencephalogram. This machine showed small – 50 microvolt – changes in the brain, so, for the first time, we could observe sleep from moment to moment. Before that time one could put the person to bed, watch him mumble, toss, turn, bring back a few rough memories of dreams and that was about all. In 1937 it was possible to read out these changes, second by second. Then in 1959 two other things happened.
Kleitman and Aserinky, as they were looking at eye movements, trying to understand the brainwaves, noticed that after about ninety minutes there would be a burst of the EEG, as if the person is a wake, and the eyes would move rapidly. It was not hard to guess that maybe that was a dream. And indeed it was. Waking up people during that period, they found they were dreaming; waking them up at other periods, they found no dreams.
       The electroencephalograph shows that when we fall asleep we pass through a cycle of sleep stages. At the onset of sleep, the cycle lasts about ninety minutes during which you pass through stages one, two and three to stage four. This is the deepest form of sleep, and from it you retreat to stage two, and from there into REM, or rapid eye movement sleep. Here, for ten minutes on the first cycle and then gradually longer, it is thought that we do most of our dreaming.
       Studies of people who volunteered to be locked up for weeks in an observation chamber with no idea of whether it is night or day, give remarkable results. We are not, in fact, twenty- four – hour creatures. Put people in such circumstances and, even though the patterns of sleep continue, the day is extended to about twenty –five and a half hours. Without any clues to time, these people go to sleep the first night about an hour later than usual, the next night an hour later, and the next night. So that, after about ten days, the person is going to sleep at three o'clock in the afternoon, thinking that he is still going to sleep at midnight.
       Today, jet – lag is a familiar hazard for the seasoned traveler. Travel across time zones plays havoc with the biological cock rhythms of human body. For the active pilot, who is rarely in one place long enough to know if it is time for breakfast or dinner, the impact of jet- lag  on his sleep is critical. Several air disasters have been partly caused by over tired pilot ignoring the natural laws of sleep. Much research is directed to finding out what these laws are and to what extent pilots and astronauts dare disobey them. But they are laws which affect all of us, not just pilots.
Choose the correct answer:
42. Gave away to line (2) means ………………
a. were rejected in favour of              b. gradually replaced
c. were replaced by                             d. came back into use after.
43. Which of the following is not a suitable alternative for convert line (3)  :
a. alter              b. turn                 c. change           d. transform
44. Only after the invention of electricity did people start…………..
a. to really enjoy insomnia.                b. asking themselves if sleep was a waste of time.
c. giving up the habit of sleeping so much.      d. to need to do research into sleep.
45. It seems that most people ……………
a. need a lot of sleep.                          b.  need less sleep than we thought.
c. sleep too much.                               d. need more sleep than we thought.
46. The electroencephalogram records……………
       a. eye movement.                                   b. the frequency of dream.
c. the time it takes to have a dream. d. small currents in the brain.
47. Dreams seem to be associated with…………..
a. deep sleep.                              b. rapid eye movement.
c. jet- lag.                                      d. overtiredness.
48. The people in the observation chamber…………
a. went to sleep an hour earlier than usual each night.
b. started to go to bed in the afternoon.
c. slept for a much longer period than usual.
d. went to sleep about an hour later than usual.
49. The word clues line (41)  means :
a. clock work            b. certainty                  c. assistance              d. information
50. The word jet – lag line (46) means:
       a. being unable to sleep properly in the aero planes.
       b. the clock says it is one time and the body says it is another.
       c. it is a different time in different parts of the world.
       d. prolonging the day from twenty- four hours to twenty – five and a half hours.




























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