Sunday, November 20, 2016

Run Commands

To Access… Run Command
Accessibility Controls access.cpl
Accessibility Wizard accwiz
Add Hardware Wizard hdwwiz.cpl
Add/Remove Programs appwiz.cpl
Administrative Tools control admintools
Adobe Acrobat (if installed) acrobat
Adobe Designer (if installed) formdesigner
Adobe Distiller (if installed) acrodist
Adobe ImageReady (if installed) imageready
Adobe Photoshop (if installed) photoshop
Automatic Updates wuaucpl.cpl
Bluetooth Transfer Wizard fsquirt
Calculator calc
Certificate Manager certmgr.msc
Character Map charmap
Check Disk Utility chkdsk
Clipboard Viewer clipbrd
Command Prompt cmd
Component Services dcomcnfg
Computer Management compmgmt.msc
Control Panel control
Date and Time Properties timedate.cpl
DDE Shares ddeshare
Device Manager devmgmt.msc
Direct X Control Panel (if installed)* directx.cpl
Direct X Troubleshooter dxdiag
Disk Cleanup Utility cleanmgr
Disk Defragment dfrg.msc
Disk Management diskmgmt.msc
Disk Partition Manager diskpart
Display Properties control desktop
Display Properties desk.cpl
Display Properties (w/Appearance Tab Preselected) control color
Dr. Watson System Troubleshooting Utility drwtsn32
Driver Verifier Utility verifier
Event Viewer eventvwr.msc
Files and Settings Transfer Tool migwiz
File Signature Verification Tool sigverif
Findfast findfast.cpl
Firefox (if installed) firefox
Folders Properties folders
Fonts control fonts
Fonts Folder fonts
Free Cell Card Game freecell
Game Controllers joy.cpl
Group Policy Editor (XP Prof) gpedit.msc
Hearts Card Game mshearts
Help and Support helpctr
HyperTerminal hypertrm
Iexpress Wizard iexpress
Indexing Service ciadv.msc
Internet Connection Wizard icwconn1
Internet Explorer iexplore
Internet Properties inetcpl.cpl
Internet Setup Wizard inetwiz
IP Configuration (Display Connection Configuration) ipconfig /all
IP Configuration (Display DNS Cache Contents) ipconfig /displaydns
IP Configuration (Delete DNS Cache Contents) ipconfig /flushdns
IP Configuration (Release All Connections) ipconfig /release
IP Configuration (Renew All Connections) ipconfig /renew
IP Configuration (Refreshes DHCP & Re-Registers DNS) ipconfig /registerdns
IP Configuration (Display DHCP Class ID) ipconfig /showclassid
IP Configuration (Modifies DHCP Class ID) ipconfig /setclassid
Java Control Panel (if installed) jpicpl32.cpl
Java Control Panel (if installed) javaws
Keyboard Properties control keyboard
Local Security Settings secpol.msc
Local Users and Groups lusrmgr.msc
Logs You Out Of Windows logoff
Malicious Software Removal Tool mrt
Microsoft Access (if installed) msaccess
Microsoft Chat winchat
Microsoft Excel (if installed) excel
Microsoft Frontpage (if installed) frontpg
Microsoft Movie Maker moviemk
Microsoft Paint mspaint
Microsoft Powerpoint (if installed) powerpnt
Microsoft Word (if installed) winword
Microsoft Syncronization Tool mobsync
Minesweeper Game winmine
Mouse Properties control mouse
Mouse Properties main.cpl
Nero (if installed) nero
Netmeeting conf
Network Connections control netconnections
Network Connections ncpa.cpl
Network Setup Wizard netsetup.cpl
Notepad notepad
Nview Desktop Manager (if installed) nvtuicpl.cpl
Object Packager packager
ODBC Data Source Administrator odbccp32.cpl
On Screen Keyboard osk
Opens AC3 Filter (if installed) ac3filter.cpl
Outlook Express msimn
Paint pbrush
Password Properties password.cpl
Performance Monitor perfmon.msc
Performance Monitor perfmon
Phone and Modem Options telephon.cpl
Phone Dialer dialer
Pinball Game pinball
Power Configuration powercfg.cpl
Printers and Faxes control printers
Printers Folder printers
Private Character Editor eudcedit
Quicktime (If Installed) QuickTime.cpl
Quicktime Player (if installed) quicktimeplayer
Real Player (if installed) realplay
Regional Settings intl.cpl
Registry Editor regedit
Registry Editor regedit32
Remote Access Phonebook rasphone
Remote Desktop mstsc
Removable Storage ntmsmgr.msc
Removable Storage Operator Requests ntmsoprq.msc
Resultant Set of Policy (XP Prof) rsop.msc
Scanners and Cameras sticpl.cpl
Scheduled Tasks control schedtasks
Security Center wscui.cpl
Services services.msc
Shared Folders fsmgmt.msc
Shuts Down Windows shutdown
Sounds and Audio mmsys.cpl
Spider Solitare Card Game spider
SQL Client Configuration cliconfg
System Configuration Editor sysedit
System Configuration Utility msconfig
System File Checker Utility (Scan Immediately) sfc /scannow
System File Checker Utility (Scan Once At The Next Boot) sfc /scanonce
System File Checker Utility (Scan On Every Boot) sfc /scanboot
System File Checker Utility (Return Scan Setting To Default) sfc /revert
System File Checker Utility (Purge File Cache) sfc /purgecache
System File Checker Utility (Sets Cache Size to size x) sfc /cachesize=x
System Information msinfo32
System Properties sysdm.cpl
Task Manager taskmgr
TCP Tester tcptest
Telnet Client telnet
Tweak UI (if installed) tweakui
User Account Management nusrmgr.cpl
Utility Manager utilman
Windows Address Book wab
Windows Address Book Import Utility wabmig
Windows Backup Utility (if installed) ntbackup
Windows Explorer explorer
Windows Firewall firewall.cpl
Windows Magnifier magnify
Windows Management Infrastructure wmimgmt.msc
Windows Media Player wmplayer
Windows Messenger msmsgs
Windows Picture Import Wizard (need camera connected) wiaacmgr
Windows System Security Tool syskey
Windows Update Launches wupdmgr
Windows Version (to show which version of windows) winver

Proficiency Test for English Language Teachers

Proficiency Test
English Language Teachers

Proficiency Test for English Language Teachers (A) 19
Section Three : Grammatical Structure Directions : Questions 93-106 are incomplete sentences. Beneath each sentence you will see four words or phrases, marked (A), (B), (C), and (D). Choose the word or phrase that best completes the sentence. 93 - I _______ the book but when I heard what the critics said I changed my mind. a) was going to buy b) would have bought c) was buying d) am going to buy 94 - She _________ him before 1968. a) has seen b) saw c) had seen d) seen 95 - It was snowing when the refugees __________ . a) have arrived b) arrived c) had arrived d) were arrived 96 - Mary is waiting ___________ the Queen. a) to see b) for seeing c) for to see d) at see 97 - She doesn’t want _________ her. a) anybody helped b) that anybody helping c) anybody to help d) that any body helps
Proficiency Test for English Language Teachers (A) 20
98 - In the year 2005,he ___________ working here for 50 years. a) will have been b) will be c) has been d) had been 99 - You ________ drive carefully. The roads are slippery. a) would better b) would rather c) had better d) had rather 100- He doesn’t smoke. _________ a) I don’t too. b) Neither I do. c) I don’t neither. d) Neither do I. 101- It’s raining. We have to return home, __________ ? a) don't we b) wouldn’t we c) didn’t we d) isn’t it 102- He knew everything ________ was going on. a) what b) where c) whom d) that 103- Students have to spend a lot of time studying _________ their own. a) on b) by c) for d) in 104- He is very famous ________ Great Britain. a) whole b) all over c) in all d) all of
Proficiency Test for English Language Teachers (A) 21
105- They’re staying with their parents __________ the time being. a) during b) for c) since d) when 106- ____________ all her efforts the party was ruined. a) In spite of b) Nevertheless c) Although d) However Section Four : Vocabulary Directions : Items 107-112 include sentences with missing words or phrases. From the words or phrases below each choose the one that best completes the sentence. 107- Keep your children away from this medicine ! It’s ________. a) dead b) deadly c) death d) dying 108- Shakespeare has written many poems. He is a __________ poet. a) large b) huge c) tiny d) great 109- This new pot is __________. You can put it on the stove. a) waterproof b) heatproof c) bulletproof d) soundproof 110- The patient is now in a ___________ condition. a) series b) medical c) critical d) psychological
Proficiency Test for English Language Teachers (A) 22
111- The new Saudi _____________ are twenty and two hundreds. a) currencies b) money c) coins d) banknotes 112- I wish you a good result in your exam. When are you _______ it ? a) passing b) taking c) leaving d) doing Directions : In each sentence below replace the boldface word with the one that has the nearest meaning to it . 113- The Roman armies were defeated in 622 A.D. a) inscribed b) enlisted c) retreated d) beaten 114- Bad deeds are disgraceful. a) shameful b) beautiful c) shy d) happy 115- Birds expand their wings when they are flying. a) protect b) inflate c) contract d) shrink 116- The population in Saudi Arabia increased from eight millions to fourteen millions in the past ten years. a) produced b) decreased c) reduced d) ascended
Proficiency Test for English Language Teachers (A) 23
Section Five : Reading Comprehension Directions : Read the following text carefully. Then answer the questions on the basis of what is stated or implied by the text. Choose the word or phrase that best completes the sentence : 1- Visitors to America are immediately struck by the tremendous numbers of automobiles filling the highways and crowding the city streets. The automobile, which has transformed the American way of life, is the most indispensable workhorse of the family. During the week, the father drives it to his job in the city, alone, or in a “car pool” arrangement with several of his fellow workers. When he leaves it at home, his wife uses it constantly to do errands, to haul groceries, to drive children to lessons or appointments, to shops or swimming pools. On weekends, the family drives out to the country for a picnic lunch or may take a trip of several hundred miles. On vacations, no corner of the country is beyond the family’s reach. 2- All of America has felt the changes, which came with the automobile and with the network of highways that have been built to serve it. Farmers, who live far from their neighbors, are no longer isolated. Tractors of the work of the many farmlands they cannot afford to hire, Trucks carry their products to market, to storage elevators or to railroads. 3- Traffic jams in cities and along the approaches to cities, especially at morning and evening rush hours and at the start and end of weekends, are difficult problems. How to find out enough parking space in the cities, even with underground parking lots and many-storied “pigeonhole” parking structures in another. More highways and wider ones are needed as fast as they can be built. 117- The main topic of this passage is __________________ . a) The network of highways b) The American highways c) Trucks and Tractors in America d) Cars and the American Life 118- The automobile has had _______________ on the American society. a) A little effect b) hardly any effect c) an obvious effect d) no effect whatsoever
Proficiency Test for English Language Teachers (A) 24
119- The American father ________________________. a) always drives alone to work. b) may share his car with other colleagues. c) drives his children to lessons. d) drives his wife to haul groceries. 120- The American family may spend the weekend ____________. a) abroad. b) in downtown. c) out of town. d) in a family gathering. 121- Thanks to the automobile, all American States have become ____________. a) within reach. b) more isolated. c) beyond reach. d) torn apart. 122- Most American families __________________ cars. a) cannot afford b) do not badly need c) do not have d) cannot do without 123- The word ‘ which ‘ in the first line of the second paragraph refers to _________________. a) all Americans b) automobiles c) changes d) traffic Section Six : Linguistics and Pedagogy 124-___________ is a feature in human language that allows for the making and interpretation of an infinite number of messages. a) Arbitrariness b) Creativity c) Interchange d) Displacement
Proficiency Test for English Language Teachers (A) 25
125- The Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis is associated with _________ . a) the cognitive theory b) the behaviorist theory c) the native theory d) none of the above 126- ___________ validity refers to the correlation between test scores and a trustworthy external criterion. a) empirical b) content c) face d) rational 127- In constructing language tests, items are said to be satisfactory if _____________ . a) they are at suitable level of difficulty b) they discriminate among students c) they improve students’ proficiency d) A & B
128- Transformational grammar _________.
a) ignores the relationship between sentences with the same meaning b) generates only the grammatical sentences of a language c) tries to modify the learner’s linguistic behavior d) is none of the above
129- ___________ suffixes do not usually change the grammatical class of the words to which they are attached.
a) Inflectional b) Derivational c) Morphological d) Functional 130- A native speaker can in most cases _________. a) give an account of the rules of his language. b) list all the possible sentences of his language. c) A & B d) None of the above.
Proficiency Test for English Language Teachers (A) 26
131- The Critical Period Hypothesis presents strong evidence for the ___________ theory of language acquisition. a) cognitive b) behaviorist c) nativist d) situational 132- In the production of ___________ the passage of the air stream is relatively unobstructed. a) vowels b) nasals c) sibilant d) fricatives 133- In the grammar translation method, __________ . a) elaborate explanations of the intricacies of grammar are given b) grammar is taught inductively c) there is little explanations d) grammar is postponed to a later stage 134- Within the cognitive approach, language acquisition is seen as ___________ . a) rule formation b) habit formation c) skill formation d) function formation 135- The eclectic method of foreign language teaching necessitates that the teachers __________ . a) apply the easiest from the various methods b) choose the best from the various methods c) apply one method in each class period d) apply at lest two methods in each class period 136- The best course design is the one that __________ . a) promotes a positive social climate in the classroom b) enhances student motivation c) makes teaching enjoyable for the teacher d) all of the above.
Proficiency Test for English Language Teachers (A) 27
137- ___________ is such a natural and normal human activity that few aspects of it really need much overt instruction. a) Listening b) Speaking c) Reading d) B & C 138- For students learning to read in a new language some previous ____________ ability is necessary. a) written language b) simple language c) oral language d) real language 139- Teaching productive skills means teaching ___________ . a) speaking and listening b) listening and reading c) speaking and reading d) writing and speaking 140- The technique of __________ is an activity where a student needs information from others to complete a particular task. a) filling in a blank b) information gap c) critical reading d) matching 141- The primary objective in teaching speaking is the development of ________ ability. a) oral communication b) phonological c) pronunciation d) good English 142- Grammar teaching is the explicit teaching of language ________ . a) forms b) words c) function d) meaning
Proficiency Test for English Language Teachers (A) 28
143- Reading in a second language normally requires processes similar to reading in a _________ language. a) first b) second c) third d) foreign 144- In preparing a test for intensive reading we should note that ___________ texts should used. a) short, simple b) short, complex c) long, detailed d) long, complex 145- Process oriented writing instruction places more emphasis on the __________ in producing a piece of writing. a) stages that writers go through b) knowledge that writers employ c) experience that writers have d) time that writers spend 146- Good pronunciation requires the ability to correctly produce and use __________ . a) Sounds, stress, and intonation. b) Sounds, stress, and meanings. c) Sound, words, and meanings. d) Sound, words and production. 147- A crossword puzzle helps students develop ________ knowledge. a) reading b) orthography c) lexical d) writing 148- Teaching words in isolation is not recommended because _______ . a) some words have different meanings b) context helps to clarify the meanings of the word c) the function of the word in a sentence helps to determine its meaning d) all the above
Proficiency Test for English Language Teachers (A) 29
149- Techniques for guessing meanings of the words from context include : a) activating background knowledge. b) Obtaining clues from structure and surrounding words. c) Understanding pronunciation and punctuation. d) All the above. 150- Using technology in teaching helps teachers _________. a) present demonstrations b) enhance course content c) provide additional illustrations d) all the above 151- Using multimedia software helps ____________ students to increase their learning ability. a) disabled b) shy c) weak d) all the above 152- Road maps are generally used in the teaching of ___________ . a) grammatical structures b) reading comprehension c) listening practice d) A & B 153- In effective language teaching, computers are best used as ________________ . a) substitutes for teachers b) aids to teachers c) means of entertainment d) substitutes for textbooks 154- In preparing material for language lab practice, it is best to _____________ . a) read from the textbook directly b) use transcripts for the purpose c) dictate to the recording person d) memorize the material first
Proficiency Test for English Language Teachers (A) 30
155- A good language teacher uses magazine pictures to __________ . a) teach language skills and elements b) decorate the classroom c) make teaching more enjoyable d) teach good pronunciation. 156- Flash cards are more commonly used to teach __________ . a) listening b) vocabulary items c) writing exercises d) reading aloud 157- We can use both flannel boards and magnetic boards to display pictures and cards. However, _____________ . a) flannel boards are more effective b) magnetic boards are easier to use c) they are similar d) chalkboards are better than both 158-Composite pictures may be effectively used in the teaching of ____________ .
a) speaking and writing
b) reading comprehension only
c) grammatical structures mainly
d) young learners only

Advanced Engl


Teaching is one of the easiest jobs in the world...
...Teaching WELL is one of the most difficult!

              In linguistics, a sentence is a grammatical unit of one or more words, bearing minimal syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it, often preceded and followed in speech by pauses, having one of a small number of characteristic intonation patterns, and typically expressing an independent statement, question, request, command, etc. Sentences are generally characterized in most languages by the presence of a finite verb, e.g. "The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog".

English For teachers

English For teachers
1. Specific objectives can be ………….
       a. observable and measurable.
       b. difficult to be observed and measured.
       c. focused on the student's behavior during a long period of time.
       d. 1 and 3
2. The smallest meaningful unit in language is…………..
       a. phoneme.                b. morpheme.             c. allophone.               d. allomorpheme.
·              3. Linguistic approach concentrates on……………..
·                a. key role of self – esteem and sense of mastery.
·                b. value of talk in the development of thinking.
·                c. social interaction is the key to success in learning.
·                d. attention on complex nature of thinking.
·              4. "What about going to the cinema" is an example of ………………..
·                a. advising                   b. warning                   c. offering help           d. suggesting
·              5. One of the following is not a type of literature:
·                a. drama             b. poetry             c. fiction                       d. prose
·              6. All the following may create discipline problems except …………
·                a. using sarcasm                 b. insisting on apologies
·                c. making threats                d. using classroom language that suits the level of students.
·              7. "To look quickly through a reading passage to find something" is called……………
·                a. skimming                b. scanning                 c. silent reading                   d. comprehension 
·              8. The man told his children a …………………… about fairies.
·                a. tail                             b.tale                            c.taile                                     d. teil
·              9. When the teacher allows students to think, and gives more time, the result will be…………..
·                a. students responses becoming more thoughtful and creative.
·                b. less students offering to answer.
·                c. students willing not to ask more questions.
·                d. students giving shorter answers.
·              10. "……….." refers to the actions of the organs of speech in the producing the sound of speech.
·                a. Acoustics                b. Phonetics               c. Articulation             d. Phonics
·              11. One of the following is not a Shakespeare's play:
·                a. Macbeth                  b. Volpone                   c. Twelfth Night                    d. King Lear
·              12. Two of the following are receptive skills:
·                a. reading and speaking             b .speaking and writing    
·              c. reading and writing                    d. listening and reading
·              13." Kinesics" is the study of…………………
·                a. sounds                    b. language                 c. gestures                            d. nature
·              14. Can you close one of the windows, please? I'll catch a cold sitting in this ……….all day.
·                a. flood               b. breeze            c. wind                         d. draught
·              15. Which abbreviation do you use when you want to add something at the end of a letter?
·                a. PS                             b. PTO                c. PM                                      d. PLZ
·              16. I am very tired.   ……………… over four hundred miles today
·                a. I drive              b. I've driven               c. I've been driving              d. I'm  driving
·              17. How ……………….are you?
·                a. weight            b. heavy              c. high                          d. long 
·              18. The prefix ante in the word ante meridiem means………………..
·                a. together                   b. against                    c. before                      d. by oneself
·              19. The stress in the word "comfortable" is on …………….
·                a. com                 b.for                              c. ta                               d. ble
20. In the dialogue:[ Teacher : What day was yesterday? Student: Tuesday.] The teacher uses:
     a. easy question                  b. complex question
     c. open question                 d. narrow question
21. No one suspects us, ………………. ……………………?
     a. are they                             b. don't they                c. do they           d. aren't they
22. Hardly …………… the receiver down than there was a knock at the door.
     a. had I put down                 b. I put down     c. put I down               d. had I downed
23. (ELT) is an abbreviation for :
a. Education Language Teaching.                    b. Educated Learners & Teachers.
c. .English Learning& Teaching.                       d. English Language Teaching.
24. Words that differ by only one phoneme are called…………..
     a. nominal pairs                   b. almost pairs          
c. minimal pairs              d. none of the above
25. Peter has two brothers, but he doesn't speak to ……………….of them.
     a. either                        b. any                           c. both                d. neither
26. The government ………………….. said that the Prim Minister was sick and tired of the papers disappearing from his office.
     a. speaksperson                 b. speak person         c. spoken person      d. spokesperson
27. ………………. refers to the ability to breakdown material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood.
     a. Synthesis                b. Analysis                            c. Application    d. Evaluation
28. A reward or punishment that strengthens or weakens a behaviour is called…………
     a. stimulus                  b. response                 c. reinforcement                  d. conditioning
9. We had a great time ……………the awful weather.
     a. but for             b. in spite of                c. except                      d. inspite
30. I think it's in my left ………………. .
     a. pocket of trousers          b. pocket trousers              
c. trouser pocket               d. trousers pocket
31.    The type of the test that identifies the test – taker's strengths and weaknesses is called a ……… test.
       a. diagnostic               b. placement               c. proficiency              d. summative
32. I am going to go out and ………………..
       a. have cut my hair              b. let my hair cut                 
c. have my hair cut           d. my hair be cut
33. One of the following doesn't contain the sound /θ /
       a. mouth             b. breathe                    c. tooth               d. beneath
34. I'm looking for ………………. to cut this string.
       a. a pair of scissors            b. some scissors                 c. a scissors               d. a scissor
35. One of the following is not from the conditions of motivation.
       a. students are motivated if they live in a secure environment.
       b. students are motivated when the subject matter is interesting.
       c. students are motivated when they experience more failure and success.
       d. students are motivated when they feel the learning for them not for the teacher.
36. " ………………" is learners use of the first patterns language in second language sentence.
       a. Transfer         b. Correlation              c. Attitude                    d. Language acquisition
37. I didn't like it in the city at first, but now …………………. here.
       a. I got  used to living                            b. I am used to living
       c. I used to live                              d. I used to living.
38. The final " ed" in the verb talked is pronounced as:
       a. /d/                                       b. /id/                                      c. /ed/                            d. /t/
39. Safety should come first, ………………. lives shouldn't be put at risk.
       a. people                      b. people's                            c. peoples'                  d. peoples
40. It's ……….. funny film, I laughed all the way through it
       a. so                                       b. extremely                          c. that much                d. such a 
41. The two parties have settled their differences by compromise after a long debate. The underlined word means:
       a. an acceptable middle coarse agreement                  b. negotiation            
c. raising awareness                                              d. revising past records
The secrets of sleep
The secret of sleep were a mystery for centuries simply because there was neither the means to explore them, nor the need. Only when candles gave away to gaslight, and gas to electricity, when man became able to convert night into day, and double his output by working shifts round the clock, did people seriously start wondering if sleep could possibly be a waste of time. Our ability to switch night into day is very recent, and it is questionable if we will ever either want, or be able, to give up our habit of enjoying a good night's sleep. However, a remarkable research project in London has already discovered a few people who actually enjoy insomnia. Even chronic insomniacs often get hours more sleep than they think. But by placing electric contacts beside the eyes and on the head, it is possible to check their complaint by studying the tiny currents we generate which reveal the different brainwaves of sleep and wakefulness. This has shown that for some people, seven or eight hours of sleep a night are quite unnecessary.
       A lot of recent work has shown that too much sleep is bad for you, so that if you are fortunate enough to be born with a body which needs only a small amount of sleep, you may well be healthier and happier than someone who sleeps longer.
       Every attempt to unravel the secret of sleep, and be precise about its function, raises many problems. The sleeper himself cannot tell what is going on and, even when he wakes, has only a very lazy idea of how good or bad a night he has had. The research is expensive and often unpopular, as it inevitably involves working at night. Only in the last few years have experts come up with theories about the function of sleep and the laws which may govern it
       The real advance in sleep research came in 1937 with the use of the electroencephalogram. This machine showed small – 50 microvolt – changes in the brain, so, for the first time, we could observe sleep from moment to moment. Before that time one could put the person to bed, watch him mumble, toss, turn, bring back a few rough memories of dreams and that was about all. In 1937 it was possible to read out these changes, second by second. Then in 1959 two other things happened.
Kleitman and Aserinky, as they were looking at eye movements, trying to understand the brainwaves, noticed that after about ninety minutes there would be a burst of the EEG, as if the person is a wake, and the eyes would move rapidly. It was not hard to guess that maybe that was a dream. And indeed it was. Waking up people during that period, they found they were dreaming; waking them up at other periods, they found no dreams.
       The electroencephalograph shows that when we fall asleep we pass through a cycle of sleep stages. At the onset of sleep, the cycle lasts about ninety minutes during which you pass through stages one, two and three to stage four. This is the deepest form of sleep, and from it you retreat to stage two, and from there into REM, or rapid eye movement sleep. Here, for ten minutes on the first cycle and then gradually longer, it is thought that we do most of our dreaming.
       Studies of people who volunteered to be locked up for weeks in an observation chamber with no idea of whether it is night or day, give remarkable results. We are not, in fact, twenty- four – hour creatures. Put people in such circumstances and, even though the patterns of sleep continue, the day is extended to about twenty –five and a half hours. Without any clues to time, these people go to sleep the first night about an hour later than usual, the next night an hour later, and the next night. So that, after about ten days, the person is going to sleep at three o'clock in the afternoon, thinking that he is still going to sleep at midnight.
       Today, jet – lag is a familiar hazard for the seasoned traveler. Travel across time zones plays havoc with the biological cock rhythms of human body. For the active pilot, who is rarely in one place long enough to know if it is time for breakfast or dinner, the impact of jet- lag  on his sleep is critical. Several air disasters have been partly caused by over tired pilot ignoring the natural laws of sleep. Much research is directed to finding out what these laws are and to what extent pilots and astronauts dare disobey them. But they are laws which affect all of us, not just pilots.
Choose the correct answer:
42. Gave away to line (2) means ………………
a. were rejected in favour of              b. gradually replaced
c. were replaced by                             d. came back into use after.
43. Which of the following is not a suitable alternative for convert line (3)  :
a. alter              b. turn                 c. change           d. transform
44. Only after the invention of electricity did people start…………..
a. to really enjoy insomnia.                b. asking themselves if sleep was a waste of time.
c. giving up the habit of sleeping so much.      d. to need to do research into sleep.
45. It seems that most people ……………
a. need a lot of sleep.                          b.  need less sleep than we thought.
c. sleep too much.                               d. need more sleep than we thought.
46. The electroencephalogram records……………
       a. eye movement.                                   b. the frequency of dream.
c. the time it takes to have a dream. d. small currents in the brain.
47. Dreams seem to be associated with…………..
a. deep sleep.                              b. rapid eye movement.
c. jet- lag.                                      d. overtiredness.
48. The people in the observation chamber…………
a. went to sleep an hour earlier than usual each night.
b. started to go to bed in the afternoon.
c. slept for a much longer period than usual.
d. went to sleep about an hour later than usual.
49. The word clues line (41)  means :
a. clock work            b. certainty                  c. assistance              d. information
50. The word jet – lag line (46) means:
       a. being unable to sleep properly in the aero planes.
       b. the clock says it is one time and the body says it is another.
       c. it is a different time in different parts of the world.
       d. prolonging the day from twenty- four hours to twenty – five and a half hours.